Which organs are in the human back
Back and abdominal muscles - the structure
Stability for the body
A person's muscles set movements in motion and keep the body upright. The back muscles in particular ensure the stability and mobility of the back, while the abdominal muscles have a supportive effect. The better these muscles are trained, the lower the stress on the spine.
On the back, two thick muscle strands run to the right and left of the spine from the pelvis to the head. They are especially important for stability. There are superficial and deeper (autochthonous) back muscles. The latter is used in technical jargon Erector spinae muscle called, attaches directly to the spine and keeps it upright. The muscles form a sophisticated system of tension: How complicated this system is is shown by the various attachment points of the muscles: for example, each spinous process of a vertebral body is connected to several transverse processes and, conversely, each transverse process is connected to various spinous processes by muscle groups.
In addition, the deep muscles are involved in all movements of the spine, for example bending backwards or sideways and turning to the right or left. These back muscles receive the signal to move from branches of the spinal nerves in the spinal cord.
Superficial back muscles connect the spine with the chest, head, arms and legs. They can be trained in a targeted manner - in contrast to deep muscles, which can only be trained indirectly, for example with a flexi-bar.
The abdominal muscles complement and support the back and trunk muscles in movement and posture. It can be trained in a targeted manner.
The muscles of the abdominal wall consist of:
- the lateral oblique abdominal muscles (Musculus obliquus externus abdominis),
- the anterior, straight abdominal muscles (musculus rectus abdominis),
- the rear, deep abdominal muscles (musculus obliquus internus abdominis).
The abdominal muscles have various tasks that they often perform in cooperation with other muscles or muscle groups:
- They stabilize and relieve the spine,
- move trunk and pelvis,
- assist other muscles in breathing and
- exercise the abdominal press.
The abdominal muscles are an important antagonist of the autochthonous back muscles. If you stand upright, your pelvis is tilted slightly forward. If you stand "tight" upright ("stomach in, chest out"), the muscles of the abdominal wall, buttocks and rear thighs tighten and the pelvis straightens up. If, on the other hand, the abdominal muscles are slack and untrained, the pelvis tilts forward. The autochthonous back muscles shorten and the backward curvature of the spine in the lumbar region (hollow back) increases.
The muscles of the abdominal wall stabilize and relieve the spine: When the abdominal muscles, the pelvic floor muscles and the diaphragm contract, the pressure in the abdominal cavity increases. This abdominal press stiffens the torso and the lumbar spine is relieved.
The belly press is especially important when lifting heavy loads, such as a case of beer. The pressure on the intervertebral discs can be reduced by up to 50 percent in the upper and by up to 30 percent in the lower area of the lumbar spine. At the same time, the deep back muscles have to use less than half as much force. Abdominal muscle training is therefore particularly important for people with diseases of the spine.
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