Who really invented the binary system?
Continuing to use the binary system is based on the fact that mechanical calculating machines have been replaced by electrical calculating machines.
Relays were used in the first electric calculating machines or the first computer. These can also only assume the states "on" or "off".
With a high proportion of mechanical components, relays are very prone to failure.
For this reason, the relays were replaced by transistors. Transistors can also only assume the states "on" or "off". Sometimes they are under tension and sometimes they are not.
Since transistors manage without mechanical components, they can therefore be made very small in terms of their dimensions.
Today's transistors in the field of processor technology are almost atomic in size. The Intel Pentium 4 processor with 2.2 GHz clocking consists of 55 million transistors on an area no larger than a fingernail.
In the future, the transistors will be even smaller and more powerful. Processor clock rates of 10 GHz and more are aimed for, with around 400 million transistors.
One problem with the ever smaller transistors is that they approximate the size of an atom.
The components of a chip, which are based on silicon crystals, decrease the necessary semiconductor properties due to quantum mechanical effects. When the atomic size is reached, the semiconductor properties will be completely lost.
In addition, there is the behavior of the electrical connections with this small size. They no longer behave like conductor tracks but are so close to each other that they interfere with each other with electro smog. They can no longer be properly suppressed.
In theory, all components of the chip are reduced in size at the molecular level and networked with one another. Signals between the components are transported using lighting technology with different wavelengths.
In theory, processor speeds of 500 THz (Terahertz) = 500,000 GHz are possible.
The latest research is in the field of bio-physics and bio-chemistry. With photosynthesis, fluorescence or photonics (lighting technology) alternatives are sought.
In the even more distant future, bionic transistors could even be developed based on bacteria. This led to even smaller transistors with even more power.
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