Continuous melting and repairing the induction furnace
Homemade induction melting furnace. Induction heating, hardening and induction melting of metals
Radiators using an electromagnetic field resulting from exposure to induced current is called induction heating. Electrotrothermal equipment or induction furnace has different models that perform tasks of different purposes.
Structure and principle of operation
For technical specifications, the device is part of the installation used in the metallurgical industry. The principle of operation of the induction furnace depends on the alternating currentInstallation capacity is formed by the appointment of the device, the design of which includes:
- melting chamber;
- vacuum system;
- mechanisms for moving the heating object and other devices.
The modern consumer market has a large number of devices that operate under the formation of eddy currents. The principle of operation and structural features of an industrial induction furnace makes it possible to carry out a number of specific operations related to non-ferrous metal smelting, heat treatment of metal products, senses of synthetic materials, with cleaning of precious and semi-precious stones. Household appliances are used to disinfect household goods and room heating.
The work of the IP (Induction Furnace) is to heat the objects placed in the chamber in the chamber with eddy currents emitted by an inductor, which is an inductance coil in the shape of a spiral, eight or a shader with a large cross is made -section. An AC operating inductor generates a pulse magnetic field, the power of which changes according to the current frequency. The article placed in a magnetic field is heated to the booming point (liquid) or melting (metal).
Installations that operate with a magnetic field are made in two ways: with a magnetic conductor and without a magnetic pipeline. The first type of instrument has an inductor in the construction enclosed in a metal housing, which provides a rapid temperature rise within the object to be processed. In the cares of the second type of Magnetotron is outside the installation.
Functions of induction devices
The wizard also requires the skills to design and assemble electrical equipment. The safety of the device of a single assembly lies in a number of functions:
- equipment capacity;
- pulse operating frequency;
- generator power;
- eddy losses;
- hysteresis losses;
- intensity of thermal returns;
- method of feed.
The channel stoves got their name for the presence in the room unit of two holes with a channel that formed a closed circuit. According to the structural features, the device cannot work without a contour, as a result of which the liquid aluminum is in continuous motion. In case of non-compliance with the manufacturer's recommendations, the device is spontaneously disconnected by interrupting the melting process.
Due to the location of the channels, induction melting units are vertical and horizontal with a drum or cylinder shape of the chamber. Drum furnace, in which cast iron can be melted, made from sheet steel. The rotating mechanism is equipped with drive rollers, two-speed electric motor and chain transmission.
Liquid bronze is poured through the siphon, which is located on the end wall, additives and slags are loaded and removed through special holes. The output of finished products takes place via a V-drain channel, which is produced in the feed on the stencil melted in the work process. The cooling of the winding and the core takes place through air mass, the body temperature can be adjusted through water.
The stove is a key element of home appliances without being impossible in any kitchen.
And when the assistants used to be electric and induction ovens are popular afterwards. And this is justified, since they have a lot of undeniable advantages: fire safety, efficiency, high heating and cooking.
Induction ovens - Modern household appliances for the kitchen
Principle of operation of an induction furnace
The induction furnace appeared on the home appliance market in the 80s of the last century, but the invention was unfortunate due to its high cost and incomprehensible principle of operation. Only after the restaurants have started to use the induction panel and feel its benefits should the hostes simplify and speed up cooking.
The principle of operation of induction plates is based on the use of magnetic field energy. The glass-ceramic underneath is a copper coil when stepped through the turns that convert the electrical current into induction. If you are placed on the hook of dishes with a magnetic undercurrent, the electrons of its ferromagnetic material act, which sets them in motion. As a result, heat is released as the dishes are heated and the contents come into the cooking stage.
For cooking on an induction plate, you need special dishes
Induction is fundamentally different from electricity and gas, aspects:
- Heating coating. In traditional ovens, the burdock is mainly heated, after which it transfers the heat that is on it. Induction heating involves warming up the bottom of the pan or pan. The glass ceramic plate is heated by the dishes, and after removing it cools over 5 minutes.
- Efficiency. Induction electric plates have an efficiency of 90% as the energy is not used to heat the burner but acts on the bottom of the pan.
- Save electricity. Adjusting the temperature of the induction furnace occurs almost instantly, resulting in a rational consumption of electricity.
- Security. When working the furnace itself, the panel does not heat up, so you can not be afraid of burns.
Features of cooking
The hostess often deliberately refuse to buy electric induction ovens because of difficulties turning them on and cooking. To accommodate the induction plate is not complicated.
After you connect the device to the power source, a signal works, which notifies the possibility of turning on the hob. Each zone has a power regulator and a custom timer.
Unusual design of induction plates
Information on how to cook on an induction plate is detailed in the instructions for use. There are specified temperature modes and power parameters that are required for a specific process of cooking a dish. For example, water boiling occurs at 7-9 levels, extinguishing - 5 or 6.
Types of panels
The home appliance market includes ovens of varying functionality and cost. Users can purchase both inexpensive induction plates for kitchens and multifunctional systems that are mounted in cafes and restaurants.
The main types of this equipment include:
- compact desktop induction plates with one or more burners;
- embedded technology or separate hotplates;
- combined plates - combine elements that work on the principle of magnetic induction and electric heating burners.
Combined induction gas plate
When choosing a stove based on the magnetic field, it is worth paying attention to its capabilities and the number of modes. With the intensive heating function, you can prepare a dish more quickly .
Infrared sensors control the maximum heating of the bottom of the pan and prevent burning food: in my opinion, this feature is necessary in the device.
It is worth thinking about the shape of the burner: it can be flat or detailed. It depends on the possibility of using dishes with different bottoms. Multifunctional devices, such as induction plates with a brass cabinet and a large number of burners, allow you to cook several dishes at the same time.
According to the type and value of the electric induction furnaces have the following specifications:
- the maximum heating temperature is 60 degrees Celsius;
- power fluctuates in the range of 50-3500 W;
- the number of adjustment modes is distinguished from 12 to 20 depending on the type of device;
- devices are equipped with a touch panel.
- the heating element is valid based on induction;
- the device is equipped with a timer.
Like any technique, this one is not immune from breakdown, but it is not difficult to find replacement parts for induction plates. In addition, people who decompose in the laws of physics can easily make an induction plate with their own hands. However, remember that there is a need to take this thing only when you have the necessary knowledge and knowledge.
We select dishes for induction plates
Many hostesses are confident that all dishes for the induction plate will have to be bought again, since the existing one will not fit. It is not quite like that.
In order to bring the induction hotplate into operating mode, utensils with ferromagnetic properties must be used. Check if it's simple enough: you need to put a magnet for the floor. If it sticks out, the dishes are suitable for use on the stove.
Iron, enamelled and cast pots have ferromagnetic properties. Glass, ceramic, porcelain and copper containers are not suitable for an oven with the magnetic field energy.
If there isn't a suitable saucepan and pan, don't choose dishes for induction plates using several tips:
- the bottom of the induction bowls must have a diameter of at least 12 cm to ensure the optimal contact area with the surface of the furnace;
- the lower thickness of the grill pan for the induction plate or other capacity should be at least 2 and not more than 6 mm;
- the floor surface must be smooth without curves;
- help in choosing the right container CAN symbol on dishes for induction plates that looks like a horizontal spiral and means with ferromagnetic material.
There are many companies that deal with a saucepan, pancakes, skewers, firefighters and even the Turks for induction plates. Hence, it is not difficult to buy them.
to watch video
If the ability to buy a full set of special dishes is absent, then you can use the adapter for the induction plate. It is a slice 2-3mm thick with different diameters depending on the size of the pot and pan. The principle of the action is: The coil transfers heat to the adapter for the induction plate, which in turn heats the dishes in it. When using such a device, it is not necessary to buy a special kettle for an induction plate, you can easily use your favorite ceramics.
Metal melting with an induction method is actively used in various industries, such as engineering, metallurgical and jewelry production. The material is heated under the influence of electric current, which allows the use of heat with maximum efficiency. In large factories there are special industrial aggregates for this, while at home a simple and small induction furnace can be collected with their own hands.
Similar ovens are popular in production
Self-assembly of the furnace
There are a multitude of technologies and schematic descriptions of this process on the internet and in the magazines, but if you choose, it pays to stick to a single model that operates most effectively, as well as being achievable and easy to perform.
Homemade smelting furnaces are quite simple in design and usually only consist of three main parts placed in a strong case. These include:
- an element that generates a high frequency alternating current;
- spiral piece made from copper pipe or thick wire, called an inductor;
- the crucible is a capacity where calcination or melting is made of refractory material.
Of course, such equipment is rarely used in everyday life, since not all masters need such units. However, the technologies found in these devices are present in home appliances that many people deal with almost every day. This can include microwaves, electric ovens, and induction plates. With your own hands on the systems, if you have the necessary knowledge and skills, you can create various devices.
In this video you will learn from what this oven is made of
The heating in such a technique takes place thanks to induction eddy currents. The temperature rise is instantaneous than other devices of similar purposes.
For example, induction plates are 90% efficient, and gas and electric cannot boast this value, but only 30-40% and 55-65%, respectively. However, sugary plates have one disadvantage: for their operation, special dishes have to be prepared for their operation.
Construction of transistors
There are many different programs for assembling induction that melt at home. A simple and proven furnace of field transistors is quite simple, many masters, familiar with the basics of radio engineering, will cope with their production according to the scheme shown in the figure. Create installation you need to prepare the following materials and details:
- two Irfz44V transistors;
- copper wires (for winding) in the enamel insulation, 1.2 and 2 mm thick (one-piece);
- two rings of chokes, they can be removed from the old computer's power supply;
- a resistor 470 ohms per 1 W (can be connected sequentially two to 0.5 W);
- two diode UF4007 (quietly replaced by the model UF4001);
- Capacitors of 250 W film capacitors are one-piece with a capacity of 330 NF, four - 220 NF, three - 1 μF, 1 piece - 470 NF.
Before assembling such a furnace, do not forget about the tools
The assembly occurs according to a schematic diagram, it is also recommended to be checked with step-by-step instructions, it will be saved from errors and the elements will be damaged. The creation of an induction melting furnace is carried out by their own hands according to the following algorithm:
- Transistors are placed on rather large radiators. The fact is that the schemes can be very hot during operation, so it is so important to choose the details of the appropriate size. All transistors can be placed on a cooler, but in this case it must be isolated by saving them from contact with the metal. Washing and plastic and rubber seals help. The correct introduction of the transistors is shown in the picture.
- Then proceed to the manufacture of chokes, they will need two parts. To do this, take the copper wire 1.2 millimeters in diameter and wind the rings from the power supply. The composition of these elements includes ferromagnetic iron in the form of a powder, so it is necessary to make at least 7-15 revolutions, leaving a small gap between them.
- The modules obtained are collected in a battery with a capacity of 4.6 μF, the capacitors are connected in parallel.
- Two mm thick copper wire is used to wind the inductor. It rotates 7-8 times around each task of the cylindrical shape, the diameter of which must correspond to the size of the crucible. Relieved wire is cut off, but they leave quite long ends: you need to connect with other details.
- All elements are connected to the board as shown in the picture.
If necessary, you can build a case for the device, for this purpose only heat-resistant materials are used, for example, textolite. The power of the device can be adjusted, for which it is enough to change the number of turns of the wire on the inductor and its diameter.
There are several variations of an induction oven that can be collected
With graphite brushes
The main element of this design is collected from graphite brushes, with the space filled with granite that is crushed into the powder state. Then the finished module is connected to a downstream transformer. Working with such equipment, you can not be afraid of the shock, because it does not need to use 220 volts.
Technology production of inductive furnace from graphite brushes:
- First the housing is collected for this fireproof (chamotte) tile control 10 × 10 × 18 cm. They are placed on the tile, which can bear high temperature. Ready box packing asbestos cardboard. To give this material the necessary shape, it is enough to moisten with a small amount of water.The size of the base is directly dependent on the power of the transformer used in the design. If you wish, the boxing can be coated with steel.
- An excellent option for graphite furnaces is a 0.063 kW transformer taken from the welding machine. If rated for 380V to ensure safety, it can be subjected to winding, although many experienced radio operators of safety believe that this procedure can be safely abandoned. However, it is recommended to allocate a thin aluminum transformer so that the finished device is not heated during operation.
- A clay substrate is installed at the bottom of the box so that the liquid metal does not get large, after which graphite brushes and granite sand are placed inside the box.
The main advantage of such devices is the high melting point, which can change the physical state even palladium and platinum. The disadvantages include too rapid heating of the transformer, as well as a small furnace area that does not allow paying more than 10 g of metal at a time. Therefore, every master must understand that if the device will handle large quantities, it is better to make a furnace of a different design.
Device on lamps
Powerful melting furnace can be collected from electronic incandescent lamps. As can be seen in the diagram, in order to get a high frequency current, you need to connect the radial lamps in parallel. Instead of the inductor in this device, a pipe made of copper with a diameter of 10 mm is used. Also, the design comes with a trimmed capacitor to be able to adjust the power of the oven. For the assembly you need to prepare:
- four lamps (tetrods) L6, 6p3 or G807;
- trimmed capacitor;
- 4 chokes per 100-1000 μH;
- neon light bulb indicators;
- four capacitor around 0.01 μF.
To start a copper pipe, the shape of the helix is attached - this is the inductor of the device. At the same time, there is a gap of at least 5 mm between the turns, and the diameter should be 8-15 cm. The ends of the spiral are treated to start the diagram. The thickness of the obtained inductor should be greater than the crucible (it is placed inside) by 10 mm.
The finished article is placed in the housing. It should be used for its manufacture, which provides electrical and thermal insulation of the instrument panels. Then the cascade of lamps, chokes and capacitor collects, as shown in the figure, the latter are connected with a straight line.
It is time to connect the neon indicator: it is necessary that the master can learn about the readiness of the device. This light bulb is displayed on the body of the furnace along with the handle of the condenser of the container.
Cooling system equipment.
Industrial metal melting units are equipped with special cooling systems based on antifreeze or water. There are additional costs involved in equipping these important facilities in homemade TVCH, which means that the assembly can be made significantly on the wallet. Therefore, it is better to provide a household unit with a cheaper system with fans.
The air cooling through these devices is possible with the remote location from the furnace. Otherwise, the metal winding and fan parts can serve as a circuit for the eddy currents, which will significantly reduce the efficiency of the device.
The lamp and electronic circuits are also apt to actively warm up during the operation of the genset. Heat sink heaters are usually used to cool them.
Experienced radio engineering assembly of an induction furnace according to the schemes with their own hands may seem an easy occupation, so the device is ready quite quickly, and in this case the master would like to try his creation. It is worth remembering that when working with a homemade installation, it is important to adhere to security techniques, and not forget about the main threats that can appear during the operation of the inertial furnace:
- Liquid metal and heating elements of devices can cause severe burns.
- The lamp circuits are made up of high voltage parts so they must be placed in a closed box during assembly of the unit, eliminating the chance of accidental contact with these elements.
- The electromagnetic field can also affect things that are outside the installation field. Therefore, before turning on the device, you need to remove all complex devices such as cell phones, digital cameras, MP3 players and remove all metal decorations. People with pacemakers are also subject to dangers: they cannot be used under any circumstances.
These furnaces can be used not only for melting, but also for rapid heating of metal objects when forming and tinning. By changing the output signal of the installation and inductor parameters, you can configure the device for a specific task.
For smelting small amounts of iron will go home-made furnaces, these effective devices can work from ordinary outlets. The device does not take up much spaceIt can be placed on the desktop in the workshop or in the garage. If a person knows how to read simple electrical circuits, then he does not need to purchase such equipment in the store, since in a few hours he can assemble a small stove with his own hands.
Radio amateurs have long found out that it is possible to make induction furnaces for melting metal with their own hands. These simple schemes will help create TVF installations for home use. However, all the designations described are corrected, which are called laboratory kitchen laboratory inverters, since it is simply impossible to assemble a full-fledged stove of this type.
The induction furnace is a furnace device that is used for melting non-ferrous iron (bronze, aluminum, copper, gold and others) and black (cast iron, steel and others) metals due to the work of the inductor. The current is generated in the area of its inductor, it heats the metal and brings it to a molten state.
First the electromagnetic field acts on it, then the electric current, and then it passes the thermal stage. Simple design of such a furnace device can be mounted independently of various remedial measures.
One such furnace is an electrical transformer with a secondary short-circuit winding. The principle of the induction furnace is as follows:
- an alternating current is generated with the generator in the inductance;
- the inductor with the capacitor creates an oscillation circuit configured at the operating frequency;
- when using an auto-oscillator, the capacitor is excluded from the device circuit, and in this case its own supply of inductor capacitance is used;
- the magnetic field generated by the inductor can be in free space or closed using a single ferromagnetic core;
- the magnetic field affects the metallic blank or the mixture in the inductance and forms a magnetic current;
- according to Maxwell's equations, it induces a secondary current in the workpiece;
- in a solid and massive magnetic current, the current currently generated in the workpiece is closed, and the current consumption of FoCo or eddy current occurs;
- after the formation of such a current, the law of Joule-Lenza occurs and the energy obtained by the inductance and magnetic field heats the workpiece of the metal or mixture.
Despite the multi-stage work, the induction furnace device can give up 100% efficiency in vacuum or air. If the medium has magnetic permeability, then this indicator grows; in the case of a non-ideal dielectric environment, it falls.
The furnace considered is a kind of transformer, but only a secondary winding is in it, it replaces the metal sample placed in the inductor. It will run a current, but dielectric ones in this process are not heated, they stay cold.
The design of crucible induction furnaces includes an inductor, which consists of several turns of the copper tube, which is rolled in the form of a coil, a cooling fluid is constantly moving in it. The inductor also contains a crucible, which can be made of graphite, steel, and other materials.
In addition to the inductance installed in the furnace, a magnetic core and litron are all enclosed in the furnace housing. It contains:
In models with high-performance ovens, the bath housing is usually carried out quite hard, so there is no frame in such a device. The attachment of the cabinet must withstand heavy loads when the entire furnace is inclined. The frame is mostly made from the shaped steel beams.
A crucible induction furnace for melting metal is installed on the foundation in which the supports are mounted, the axes of the device tilt mechanism are based on their bearings.
The housing of the bath is made of sheet metal, for which the rib ribs are welded for strength.
The housing for the induction unit is used as a link between the furnace transformer and the under snow. It is made to reduce power losses from two halves between which an insulating gasket is provided.
Half the screed occurs at the expense of bolts, washers and sleeves. Such a housing is made by casting or welding if the material is selected as it is preferred from non-magnetic alloys. A two-chamber induction steel melting furnace has a shared bath hat and an induction unit.
In small ovens that do not have water cooling, there is a ventilation unit to remove excess heat from the unit. Even you can ventilate the water-cooled inductor, it is necessary to ventilate the opening near the subsidy so that it does not overheat.
In modern furnace installations there is not only a water-cooled inductance, but also the water-cooling of the housing. Fans can be installed in the frame of the furnace, which are carried out by the drive motor. With a significant mass of such a device, the ventilation device is installed near the furnace. When the induction furnace for steel production is supplied with a detachable embodiment of induction units, each of them offers its fan.
Separately, note the tilt mechanism, which for small ovens is equipped with a manual drive, and for large ovens, it is equipped with a hydraulic drive located near the discharge nose. Whatever the tilt mechanism is set, it is obliged to ensure the drainage of all the contents of the bathroom.
Calculation of power.
Since the induction method of smelting has become due to the use of fuel oil, coal and other energies based on the use of heating oil, coal and other energies, the calculation of the induction furnace starts with calculating the power of the device.
The capacity of the induction furnace is divided into active and useful, each of them has its own formula.
As source data, you need to know:
- the stove capacity, in the case considered, for example, is 8 tons;
- the power of the device (the maximum value is taken) - 1300 kW;
- power frequency - 50 Hz;
- the output of the furnace installation is 6 tons per hour.
It is also necessary to take into account the molten metal or alloy: under the condition, it is zinc. This is an important point, the heat balance of the cast iron that melts in the induction furnace, as well as other alloys.
Useful power transferred to liquid metal:
- Rpol \ u003d water × t × n,
- Washing-specific energy consumption is theoretical and shows the overheating of the metal by 1 0 s;
- P is the power of the furnace installation, t / h;
- t - overheating temperature of the alloy or metal blank in the bathroom stove, 0 s
- RPOL \ u003d 0.298 × 800 × 5.5 \ u003d 1430.4 kW.
- P \ u003d rpol / yuterm,
- RPOL - takes from the previous formula, kW;
- Yuterm - KPD of the foundry furnace, its limits from 0.7-0.85, received on average 0.76.
- P \ u003d 1311.2 / 0.76 \ u003d 1892.1KW, a rounding value is carried out up to 1900 kW.
In the final phase, the power of the inductor is calculated:
- Rin \ u003d p / n,
- P is the active power of the furnace installation, kW;
- N - the number of inductors intended for the furnace.
- Cattle \ u003d 1900/2 \ u003d 950 kW.
Electricity consumption by induction furnace when weaving steel depends on its power and the type of inductor.
Views and subspecies
Induction furnaces are divided into two main types:
In addition to such a separation, induction furnaces are compressor, vacuum, open and gas-filled.
Induction ovens with their own hands
Among the existing common techniques for creating such aggregates, you can find step-by-step guide on how to create an induction furnace from the welding inverter with nichrome spiral or graphite brushes, we present their functions.
High frequency generator unit
It is carried out taking into account the estimated performance of the unit, the eddy losses and the leaks of the hysteresis. The structure of the design is undertaken by the usual network of 220 V, but with the rectifier. This type of furnace can go with graphite brushes or nichrome spirals.
To create a furnace you need:
- two diode UF4007;
- film capacitors;
- field transistors in the number of two parts;
- 470 ohm resistor;
- two throttle rings, they can be removed from the old computer system;
- copper wire Ø 2 mm section.
A soldering iron and pliers serve as tools.
Let's give a circuit for an induction furnace:
Induction portable melting furnaces of such a plan are made in the following order:
- Transistors are located on radiators. Due to the fact that in the process of metal melting the diagram of the device quickly heats up, it is necessary to choose the cooler for this with large parameters. It is permissible to set several transistors per single generator, but in this case they must be isolated from the metal with gaskets made of plastic and rubber.
- Two chokes are made. For them, two are taken from the computer in advance from the computer, the copper wire is wound around them, the number of turns is limited from 7 to 15.
- The capacitors are combined between them in the battery so that a capacitance of 4.7 μF is obtained at the output, with their connection being carried out in parallel.
- Copper wire is wrapped around the inductor, the diameter should be 2 mm. The inside diameter of the winding must match the size of the crucible used for the furnace. All make 7-8 turns and leave long purposes so that they can be connected to the diagram.
- As a source, the battery with a capacity of 12 V is connected as a source to the assembled scheme, it is enough for about 40 minutes of the furnace.
If necessary, the case is made of the material with high thermal resistance. If the induction melting furnace is carried out by the welding inverter, the protective case must necessarily be, but it must be earthed.
Construction with graphite brushes
Such a furnace is used to smell metal and alloys.
To create the device, you need to prepare:
- graphite brushes;
- powder granite;
- camp bricks;
- steel wire;
- thin aluminum.
The design mounting technology is as follows:
Device with nichrome spiral
Such a device is used to smell large amounts of metal.
As consumables for arranging a homemade oven:
- asbestos thread;
- a piece of ceramic pipe.
Having logged all the components of the furnace according to the scheme, its work is as follows: after the electric current is supplied to the nichrome spiral, it transfers heat metal and melts it.
The creation of such a furnace is carried out in the following order:
Such a design is characterized by high performance, it cools down for a long time and heats up quickly. However, it is necessary to take into account that if the coil is poorly insulated, it will be quickly overwritten.
Prices for ready-made induction ovens
Homemade furnaces from furnaces cost much cheaper than bought, but they can not be created from large volumes, so without ready-made options for mass production of the melt is impossible.
Prices for induction furnaces for melting metal depend on the capacity and configuration.
|model||Features and functions.||Price, rubles|
|Adutherm mu-200||The oven supports 16 temperature programs, the maximum heating temperature is 14000 ° C, the mode is controlled with a type S thermocouple. The unit generates an output of 3.5 kW.||820 thousand.|
|Adutherm mu-900 ||The furnace works from the power supply in 380 V, the temperature is controlled by a type S thermocouple and can reach 1500 ° C. Power - 15 kW.||1.7 million|
|UPI-60-2. ||This induction melting mini furnace can be used for smelling paint and precious metals. Billets are loaded into a graphite crucible, their heating is carried out on the transformer principle.||125 thousand years.|
|East 1 / 0.8 m5 ||The furnace inductor is a basket in which the magnetic circuit is built in connection with the coil. Aggregate 1 ton.||1.7 million|
|UI-25P. ||The furnace device is designed for loading in 20 kg, it is equipped with an aisle slope of the melting node. A block of capacitor batteries is included for the furnace. Installation power - 25 kW. Maximum T-heating - 1600 0s.||470 thousand years.|
|UI-0.50T-400 ||The device is designed to load 500 kg, the largest installation power is 525 kW, that the voltage for them should not be lower than 380 V, the maximum work will work t-1850 0s.||900 thousand.|
|ST 10. ||The oven of the Italian company is equipped with a digital thermostat, SMD technology is built into the control panel, which is characterized by speed. The universal unit can work with a different capacity of 1 to 3 kg, it does not have to be recycled. It is designed for precious metals, the maximum temperature is 1250 ° C.||1 million|
|ST 12.||Static induction oven with a digital thermostat. It can be supplemented with a vacuum forming chamber, which makes it possible to make the casting right next to the installation. Management occurs with the touch panel. The maximum temperature is 1250 ° C.||1050 thousand years.|
|ICT-10TN.||The furnace is designed to load in 10 tons, which is a fairly bulky unit for its installation that you need to highlight an enclosed workshop space.||8.9 million|
Creating an induction furnace independently is fascinating, but it comes with some limitations and unknown consequences, since it is necessary to rely on the laws of physics and chemistry, and if it is not strong in doing so, it will not be in the Be able to secure the process. For frequent use of such an installation, it is better to select the appropriate option from above.← Previous ArticleNext Article →
The induction furnace is used to melt non-ferrous and ferrous metals. The units of such an operating principle are used in the following areas: from the finest jewelry to industrial melting of metals in large sizes. This article examines the characteristics of various induction ovens.
Induction furnaces for melting metal
Induction heating is based on the furnace action. In other words, electricity creates an electromagnetic field And it turns out that heat that is used on an industrial scale. This right of physics is examined in the final grades of secondary school. However, the concept of an electrical unit and electromagnetic induction boiler cannot be confused. Although the basis of work and there and it's electricity.
How does this happen
The generator connects to the alternating current source, which it inputs through the inductor inside. The capacitor is activated to create an oscillation contour based on a constant operating frequency that is tuned to the system. When the voltage in the generator increases to the limit value in 200, the inductor generates a magnetic field of the alternating current.
The circuit of the chain occurs most often by means of a ferromagnetic alloy core. A variable magnetic field begins to interact with the material of the workpiece and generates a powerful stream of electrons. After connecting the induction effects of the electrically conductive element in the system takes place the appearance of residual stresseswhich contribute to the occurrence of eddy currents in the capacitor. The eddy energy of the eddy is converted into the thermal energy of the inductor and heated up to high melting temperatures of the desired metal.
The heat generated by the inductor is used:
- for melting soft and solid metals;
- harden the surface of the metal parts (e.g. tools);
- for processing in the thermal mode of already manufactured parts;
- household needs (heating and cooking).
Brief description of the different ovens
Varieties of equipment.
Induction crucible pain
It is the most common type of furnace induction heating. Another pronounced feature than other species is that an alternating magnetic field appears in it in the absence of a standard nucleus. Cylinder cylinder placed in the inductor cavity. The furnace or crucible is made of a material that perfectly withstands fire and connects to a variable electric current.
Crucible aggregates refer environmentally friendly heat sourcesThe environment is not polluted by molten metals.
There are disadvantages in the work of crucible furnaces:
- in technological processing, the slags of reduced temperature are used;
- The lining of crucible furnaces has a low resistance to destruction, which is for the most part noticeable with sharp temperatures.
The existing drawbacks do not represent the particular difficulties, the advantages of the crucible induction unit for molten metal are evident and these type of instruments are popular in demand among the wide range of consumers.
Channel furnace induction melting
This type has been widely used in the smelting of non-ferrous metals. Works effectively for copper and copper alloys based on brass, Melchior, bronze. Actively float in channel units of aluminum, zinc and alloys in the composition of these metals. The widespread use of ovens of this type is limited due to the inability to perform one of the destruction, on the interior walls of the chamber resistant to destruction.
Circus induction type molten metal works thermal and electrodynamic movementIt ensures the constant homogeneity of the mixing of the components of the alloy in the furnace bath. The use of channel furnaces of the induction principle is justified in cases where special requirements for the molten metal are presented and bars are presented. Alloys are obtained qualitatively in terms of the coefficient of gas saturation, presence in metallic organic and synthetic impurities.
Induction channel ovens work like a mixer and are designed to balance the composition, with the constant temperature supporting the process and selecting the flushing speed in crystallizers or molds. For each alloy and layer composition there are parameters of a special offer.
- the heating of the alloy occurs at the bottom, to which there is no air access, which reduces evaporation from the surface heated to the minimum temperature;
- Channel furnaces refer to economical induction furnaces, since the resulting melting is ensured by a small consumption of electrical energy;
- the furnace has a high efficiency due to the use of the closed circuit of the magnet wire;
- the constant circulation in the molten metal furnace causes the melting process to be accelerated and contributes to the uniformity of mixing of the alloy components.
- the resistance of the stone lining is reduced when using high temperatures;
- the lining is destroyed when chemically aggressive alloys of bronze, tin and lead melt.
- when a low-grade contaminated cargo is melted, channels are clogged;
- the superficial slag on the bath does not harden to a high temperature, which does not allow any operations in the interval between the metal and the shelter and melt the chips and scrap;
- Channel units wear poorly in work, as a result of which it constantly stores a substantial amount of the liquid alloy in the Jerle.
The complete removal of the molten metal from the furnace leads to its rapid cracking. For the same reason, it is impossible to meet quickly restructuring from one alloy to anotherYou need to record several incidents called ballast.
Vacuum induction furnaces
This type is widely used for melting high quality steels and nickel, cobalt and iron alloys of refractory quality. The device is successfully completed with floating non-ferrous metals. In vacuum units, glass is boiled, treated with a high part of the part, made single crystals..
The furnace refers to a high frequency generator located in an inductor in an external medium that carries a high frequency current. In order to create a vacuum from it, air masses were pumped out of it. All operations for the introduction of additives, loading the load, discharging the metal are made by automatic mechanisms with electrical or hydraulic control. Alloys with small impurities of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, organics are obtained from vacuum furnaces. The result is far superior to considering open induction ovens.
Heat-resistant steel from vacuum furnaces used in instrumental and weapon production. Some nickel and titanium content nickel alloys are chemically active and make them problematic in other types of furnaces. Vacuum ovens perform metal filling by rotating a crucible in the inside of the case or the rotation of the camera with a fixed hearth. Some models have an opening hole in the bottom of the metal in the installed container.
Cable ovens with transistor converters
Apply for the limited weight of non-ferrous metals. They are mobile, light in weight, and easily rearranged from place to place. The furnace includes high voltage transistor universal action converter. Allows you to choose the power recommended for connection to the network, and thereby the type of transducer required in this case with a change in the weight parameters of the alloy.
Transistor induction furnace. Widely used for metallurgical processing. This heats it up from the details in black mining, strengthens metallic objects. Tigli in transistor furnaces are made of ceramics or graphite, the first should be provided ferromagnetic metals such as cast iron or steel. Graphite is installed for melting brass, copper, silver, bronze, and gold. Glass and silicon are mounted on them. Aluminum melts well through cast iron or steel crossings.
What is a lining of induction ovens?
Its purpose is to protect the fireplace from the destructive effects of high temperatures. The side effect is to maintain heat, therefore the effectiveness of the process increases.
The crucible in the design of an induction furnace is carried out in a way:
- the method of removing smaller in volume ovens;
- printing method from refractory material in the form of masonry;
- combined, combined ceramics and sealing of the buffer layer in the interval of the masonry and the indicator.
The lining is made of quartzite, corundum, graphite, chamotte graphite, magnesite. All of these materials are buckled by additives that improve the properties of the lining, reducing changes in volume that improve sintering, which increases the layer's resistance to aggressive materials.
Select one or another material for the lining take into account a number of simultaneous conditions, namely the type of metal, the price and refractory properties of the crucible, the life of the composition. The properly selected feed should provide technical requirements for the process:
- receive high quality bars;
- the greatest amount of full smelting without repair work;
- safe work of specialists;
- stability and continuity of the melting process;
- obtaining quality material while using the economic amount of resources;
- request for lining of common materials at a low price;
- minimal impact on the surrounding space.
The use of induction ovens allows you to maintain yourself alloys and metals of excellent quality With minimal content of various impurities and oxygen, which increases their application in complex production areas.
- What is the google C ++ coding style
- What is a good moving service
- What causes domonic acid poisoning
- What about working on the Infosys Mysore campus
- Where is the Niagara waterfall
- Can chimpanzees hit people?
- Most homeless people are alcoholics
- Which plant is this 2
- How long can emotional pain last
- What is GDP 2
- How to become a Twitch streamer
- What is the Oberammergau Passion Play
- North Korea is armed with nuclear weapons
- How can I download iOS 11 1
- What is the difference between Indian parents and American parents?
- Why did my larynx disappear after singing
- What makes a worst wedding
- New coins come on the coin base
- Why are red dwarf stars so chaotic
- Depression can be treated by a doctor
- Are there college scholarships for mothers
- Was Adolf Hitler democratically elected
- How is Kurkure prepared
- What does user acceptance testing mean