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1 The Ostpreußenblatt No. May 2007 INDEPENDENT WEEKLY NEWSPAPER FOR D EUTSCHLAND C PVST. In the meantime, however, it is much more about the office of Federal President, about a state affair. One after the other: Of course, among other things, his involvement in the murder of Federal Prosecutor Siegfried Buback 30 years ago is charged. In 1985, Hogefeld had lured a US soldier into a trap and murdered him along with other perpetrators, along with other crimes. The RAF wanted to use the young man's military ID in attacks. Crash threatens European navigation system endangered Are the European technology companies too risk averse or do they trust too much in the billions of EU funding? In any case, Europe is in acute danger of losing a leading position in high technology. It is about the planned European satellite navigation system Galileo, which would put the previous American Navstar GPS in the shade. In civilian use, the GPS system is accurate to one meter; Galileo could even determine a position with a few centimeters even in closed buildings, i.e. the storage location of a parcel in a high rack. Galileo technology is likely to revolutionize the entire warehouse and logistics system; the worldwide I By KLAUS D. VOSS demand for Galileo is intended to create jobs. Only the industrial consortium, which took over the EU contract tendered for four billion euros and was supposed to operate Galileo commercially, shies away from the risk. The companies, including the European aerospace group EADS and the subsidiary T-Systems associated with Deutsche Telekom, demand high return guarantees from the EU. The additional demands brought the space project to a dead end; the start of Galileo by 2012 has become questionable. Now the EU has to decide whether it can keep the cutting-edge technology in Europe and if necessary finance it itself. vs Köhler did not publicly justify its decision as usual. After all, he is the first Federal President who has resisted the appeals for clemency from among the RAF terrorists. In contrast to his predecessors Richard von Weizsäcker, Roman Herzog and Johannes Rau, who had released a total of six RAF members early. It was Rau who had left the case of Klar to his successor. It remains to be seen why the decision had to be made so long. One could have convinced oneself more quickly that Christian Klar in particular is not gracious, as the vast majority of German citizens estimate. The long wait had only played into the hands of the left-wing extremists, who want to continue cultivating the legends of the A RAF with scattered suspicions and pseudo references to legal errors. The mostly faceless supporters from the sympathizer scene, however, regularly overlook one fact: Any of the terrorists who feel unjustly condemned could themselves contribute to the clarification of all outstanding acts with confessions and verifiable information on the RAF attacks. The condemned have so far remained guilty of this; as with Christian Klar, there is usually a lack of insight and remorse. At least in the result, Köhler's decision is convincing, just as he did not avoid other difficult decisions. He does not allow himself to be tied in by interest groups and especially by political parties. So he stopped all thoughts of the Schröder government to abolish the holiday for German unity and refused to sign laws that he considered unconstitutional. The first man in the state gained a lot of respect from the German citizens. It looks very different with the parties. Advice and barely disguised instructions for action accompanied Köhler's decision-making path to appeal for clemency. The CSU General Secretary Söder was foolish enough to say openly what almost everyone thinks: that a Federal President has to function in party proportion, he does not want to risk his re-election. The importance of the highest office of the state has never been more up for grabs than it is now. What helps? The German citizens should not miss the opportunity to elect their president directly. Only the broad legitimation through a primary election can equip the office with the sovereignty that is intended for it. KLAUS D. VOSS: Government bond is shy of looking at this MSpiegel: France vibrated with political zeal for weeks, then two rounds of voting to decide on the president with a turnout of well over 80 percent, lived democracy across the Rhine. And in Germany? Bundestag elections have been well below this mark for decades, and state elections are even lower. Local elections fall below the pain threshold. Voting means having a choice, and the French were able to get there. It was about national conservatives like a Le Pen, about conciliatory center politics of the Bayrou brand, about Segolène Royal with its socialism of convenience. Our neighbors decided on the conservative Nicolas Sarkozy, the man with the steam-jet charm. France voted for reforms in packs of ten; good choise. And in Germany? You really don't have to be sad that there isn't even a really left party in our country, but only suburban socialists with an incurable urge to join the public service or subsidized cultural enterprises. But then the complaining begins. All established German parties strive to be a people's party: equally big, equally difficult, equally boring: there is no alternative to this policy. So what is missing in Germany? A party committed to Christian values, a commitment to the nation, its culture and history. To be conservative means to preserve and develop this. A small government bond in France cannot do any harm. The new climate for discussion The excitement subsides: More objectivity in the dispute over predicted global warming n a stock exchange, the shares of Klima AG would now fall and fall ... Part three of the UN climate report published in Bangkok has attracted the least public attention to date : The climate panic is fizzling out, which is detrimental to the courses of the businessmen. The third part of the climate report deals with the crucial questions of humanity: What does it cost? and Who pays for it when entire regions have to adapt to changing climatic conditions. The fact that fortunately more objectivity is now entering the climate discussion has its reason - the topic has been used up in the scandal media like many other alarm messages. Experienced newspaper readers know a whole cemetery full of excitement topics: ozone hole, BSE, bird flu, fine dust alarm and more. Last winter, millions of unvaccinated people should have fallen victim to a global flu pandemic. Fortunately, a lot of the headlines don't have much to do with reality. If the questions arise now even in editorial offices like at Spiegel, what is actually secured science about the climate catastrophe and what is only Berlin in miniature: For a few weeks now Potsdamer Platz in Berlin has had another attraction. The Legoland Discovery Center Berlin has different departments. In Miniland you can admire the Berlin Cathedral, the Reichstag and the Brandenburg Gate, and watch the production of the colorful toy building blocks in a small factory. A construction and test center, a 4-D cinema, a quiz trail and a gondola ride are especially popular with younger visitors. Photo: pa purposeful hypotheses, then the line of thought is correct. After the earth melts, the headlines are more likely to be called The Climate Bluff. It is slowly becoming clear what actually secured meteorological or physical facts are and what are only interest-based forecasts. Much more decisive, however, is the question of whether the immensely expensive climate protection plans of the Europeans really start in the right place, whether the dimensions are right worldwide. The Indian head of the delegation at the UN climate conference in Bangkok, Surya Sethi, reminded people that more than half of his compatriots do not yet have an electricity connection. These 600 million people and the corresponding population groups in China are to be taken care of in the near future, quite apart from the fact that the world population will grow by one billion people in the next 15 years. The savings proposals for energy generation and carbon dioxide savings, which are hotly debated in Germany, are of a very modest dimension. The replacement of incandescent lightbulbs with energy-saving lamps, as demanded by environmental politicians, seems just as lost as the short-sighted renunciation of the use of nuclear energy. These aspects also make it clear why entire sectors such as the auto industry cannot be commanded by environmental politicians according to their daily slogans. You have to plan responsibly and produce for the market and not for the good conscience of Gabriel and Co. (see also report on page 2) vs.

2 2 No. May 2007 NEWS 53.7 million Muslims in Europe (one trillion four hundred and ninety-seven billion six hundred twenty-seven million five hundred forty-eight thousand and four hundred and twelve) Soest 53.7 million Muslims live in Europe, 15.9 million of them in the European Union (EU). This emerges from a new statistic published by the Central Institute Islam Archive Germany (Soest). The institute relies on information from the embassies of European countries in Germany and their statistical offices. Of the roughly 680 million Europeans, 7.9 percent are Muslims. In the EU, their share is 3.2 percent. A comparison with earlier statistics of the institute is not possible, according to the institute, because for the first time smaller countries in Europe are also taken into account. Most Muslims are to be found in Russia (25 million) and in the European part of Turkey (5.9 million). Within the EU, most Muslims live in France (5.5 million), Germany (3.3 million), Great Britain (1.5 million), Bulgaria (1.1 million) and Italy and the Netherlands (one million each). In Austria and Switzerland their number is about Muslims respectively. The majority of the population are followers of Islam not only in Turkey, but also in Albania (2.1 million) and Bosnia-Herzegovina (two million). The fewest Muslims are found in Andorra (400), Latvia (380) and Iceland (321). Of the 494.7 million citizens in the EU, 224.5 million are Catholics, 115 million are non-denominational, 57.8 million are Protestants, 39 million are Orthodox, 15.9 million Muslims and 1.5 million are Jews. idea From HANS HECKEL critics contemptuously call them the death tax, for their supporters it is the ideal way to more equality of opportunity and social justice. When it comes to inheritance tax, two contradicting company plans are divided, right and left are divided with rare clarity. The attacks by the SPD against proposals from the Union to abolish the tax primarily serve to restore the distinction between the two grand coalition members and to make the difference more visible. Proponents of the tax argue that an heir is the beneficiary of an asset to which he has contributed nothing through his own work. Therefore, wealthy heirs in particular should be taxed more heavily. Opponents of inheritance tax take the opposite approach at the outset and focus not on the heir but on the testator: after all, all of his belongings have long been taxed. It is his right to give his honestly acquired and taxed property wherever he wants, without the state again digging into his pocket during his lifetime (gift tax) or at death. The Left emphasizes that it does not want to tax smaller assets. In fact, exemptions already apply today that exempt an inheritance in the amount of euros for spouses, for children of and grandchildren of siblings this exemption shrinks to euros, all other heirs have 5200 euros tax-free. All amounts in excess of this are charged depending on the sum and tax class. P OLITICS Between two ideologies Inheritance tax is “death tax” for one, and a guarantee of equal opportunities at rates of seven to 50 percent for the other. Since real estate is usually not divisible and causes maintenance costs, it has so far been calculated at an average of only 60 percent of its real value. The Federal Constitutional Court saw this as unlawful discrimination against the heirs of capital assets. On January 31, 2001, the Karlsruhe judges commissioned the legislature to put an end to this unequal treatment by the end of 2008. If he did nothing, the inheritance tax law would simply expire at the end of 2008, and from 2009 the tax would actually be abolished. But it won't come to that. It is already reported from the Union that the proposed abolition of the death tax has already been given up. After all, at the beginning of 2005, at the suggestion of the Free State of Bavaria, the red-green cabinet decided to pave at least a way out of inheritance tax for company heirs. This was to prevent family businesses from having to be broken up by the heirs because they had to pay the tax from the business assets. According to this regulation, the tax will melt away in ten equal installments in ten years if the heir continues to run the business. At the end of the entire period, the tax would then be waived. Critics see this new regulation not only as a relief for companies, but above all as a new loophole for large heirs. They just have to succeed in declaring their legacy as operationally necessary. Tax expert Lorenz Jarass spoke to the world about a large employment program for tax advisors, tax officials, lawyers and courts. Heirs of smaller fortunes, which are above the exemption limit, but far below the large legacies, are actually punished and not the super-rich who are populistically thrown into the debate. For really rich heirs, there are many possibilities not only in German tax law, as suggested by the expert Jarass. Relocating abroad is naturally easier for them than the less well-off. Many Swiss cantons deliberately attract wealthy heirs, and in other countries such as Sweden, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Portugal, Italy and soon also Austria only a very low or no inheritance tax is levied. So once again the middle class is the main victim. The lower classes enjoy high tax exemptions, the rich have a wide range of tax avoidance options. Contact: 040 / Editorial office: -32 Advertisements: -41 Subscription service: The debt clock: Already gone! Even while the tax assessment working group met last week, the discussion about what should happen to the windfall was continued. The federal, state and local governments are expected to receive 200 billion euros more than expected by 2011 due to the good economic situation. You mustn't get drunk now and lose your grip on the ground, said Federal Finance Minister Steinbrück, however, in response to some arithmetic games. In addition, the federal government has already planned 50 billion euros of its 90 billion euros share for health insurance subsidies. Previous week: Debt per capita: Previous week: (Status: Tuesday, May 8, 2007, 12 noon. Numbers: Who larger Inherit amounts, have to pay: If loved ones are just underground, the state will report. A Well thought out, but badly made The energy certificate is coming: Billion dollar business for energy consultants, civil engineers and architects From MARIANO ALBRECHT uf the industry of energy consultants, civil engineers and architects A billion-dollar business is rolling in from 2008. Even freelancers and university graduates with ecological or construction-related training can benefit from the cake. Those who complete a short course to become an energy consultant will be able to issue the energy certificate from 2008. With the implementation of the Energy Saving Ordinance, the so-called energy certificate for residential buildings will be introduced Every landlord or owner of apartments or houses must for his property ie a so-called demand-oriented or demand-oriented energy certificate issued. 100 to 400 euros are due per ID. With around 20 million buildings affected, this is a windfall for the industry. With the new Energy Saving Ordinance, the federal government is implementing an EU directive that was suggested by the German side in 2002. The government and environmentalists hope that in the future this will motivate owners and landlords of buildings to operate their properties economically and ecologically. What was previously only compulsory for the construction of new houses is now being extended to so-called existing properties. This should stimulate competition in the real estate market and encourage buyers and tenants to be more energy-conscious. With renovation or modernization recommendations, owners should be motivated to invest. Well meant, what the red-green federal government had thought in 2002 to reduce energy losses in the living area in order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption by old heating systems, hot water and air conditioning systems that eat up electricity. But if you look closely at the planned implementation of the directive, you quickly come to the conclusion that the consumer is only selling patches. From January 1, 2008, owners only have to provide potential tenants or buyers with an energy performance certificate upon request. However, you are not obliged to bring the energy certificate into the sales or rental meeting of your own accord.There are two types of energy pass, which are intended to provide information about the expected energy consumption of the property, similar to the purchase of an electrical device. The first version of the consumption-based ID only shows how much energy the property has used in the last three years. This is then also the cheaper version (around 100 euros) for the landlord in order to comply with the law. For the tenant or buyer, however, this does not result in anything about the consumption that can be expected, as he of course does not learn anything about the heating habits, the frequency of shower orgies or the lighting preferences of the previous tenant. Every energy consultant or chimney sweep should then be able to issue this energy certificate light. This does not even have to appear on site. He can have the landlord whisper the sky in his ear over the phone and then certify that a certain amount of energy has been consumed in the building. It remains to be seen whether it was caused by one person or a family of five. Abuse and misleading the consumer through energy awareness should be aroused Photo: pa Windy owners and landlords who, for example, can attest to good energy efficiency through false information in order to drive up the rental or purchase price, you can contact the responsible ministry Do not imagine transport, construction and urban development. We wanted to create an unbureaucratic and inexpensive variant, said a spokesman. In the run-up to the draft law, the German Energy Agency (dena) tested various types of energy certificates in a model project on behalf of the federal government. According to a spokesman for the company, which is 50 percent owned by the federal government, the consumption-oriented variant is considered to be unusable for providing information on the energy efficiency of a house due to its lack of information and manipulation. Dena itself only issues so-called needs-based ID cards, which are issued by qualified staff, usually engineers, after an on-site appointment. Cost: around 400 euros. For this purpose, as in a new building, the overall energy-related situation of the building is determined on the basis of measured data. The result depends on the facade and window insulation, the type of heating system and all factors that make up the energy consumption of a house or apartment. The catch: There are no requirements for the owner or landlord to remedy defects here either. Neither the responsible ministry for economics and technology nor the ministry for transport, building and urban development were able to provide information on the underlying guide values. The question of the liability of exhibitors and homeowners in the event of significant deviations from the certified energy consumption also remains completely unresolved. If the law is approved by the Federal Council as expected, a paper tiger without teeth will be released with the energy pass.

3 I had bad luck, boys By HARALD FOURIER A friend has a son. The ten-year-old was recently reading aloud to an E kindergarten. His schoolmate was on a home economics class. They would have preferred to play football, both moaned afterwards. But 14 days ago it was Girlsday. And boys are being re-educated there too. The man as a man should be abolished and replaced by a softened sleeper. The feminist faction will only calm down when the last future astronaut has retrained to care for the elderly and all boys want girls' jobs and vice versa. The girls should advance into male professions so that the feminist requirements are met. These demands are no rustling of the women's magazine Emma, ​​but government policy for a long time. That is why there is Girlsday, during which bored ten-year-old girls are shipped to factories or to computer companies. The government project for future sleepers is: New ways for boys. But we have known since Pisa: The disadvantage of boys begins in elementary school, who are predominantly taught by women there. Nothing against teachers but because of their overweight, as courageous experts reveal, the lessons are one-sidedly geared towards the needs of girls. These deficits then continue up to the Abitur, which fewer and fewer boys are taking. One remedy for the poor performance of boys would be separate lessons, because it has been shown that both boys and girls then perform better. But that is also not wanted. The Brandenburg school bureaucracy has now forbidden the Catholic order Opus Dei to set up an all-boys school (see also PAZ 05/07). Last year there was a successful pilot project for separate lessons in Frankfurt am Main. About the lessons in all girls and boys classes at the Kerschenstein School it is said that the first experiences are positive. Why is the school bureaucracy in Hessen testing something that it forbids with great fuss in Brandenburg? Quite simply: at the Kerschenstein School, the girls suddenly performed worse than the boys last year. So the school bureaucrats came up with a plan to remedy this unfortunate situation. Where the young are left behind, however, such pragmatic solutions are blocked. But what slogan did feminists use in the 1970s? If we want our daughters to be better off, we must make our sons to be worse off! n 1899 Paul Lincke's operetta Frau Luna had its acclaimed premiere and the resulting song from the Berlin air (with the scent that rarely fizzles out) went around the world, or at least through Europe. 100 years later came from there, more precisely: from the desks of the EU bureaucracy, the fine dust directive of the EU of April 22nd In spring 2006 the Federal Environment Ministry implemented the directive in German law and decided to mark vehicles with pollutant stickers. With the help of the regulation, motor vehicle traffic in so-called environmental zones is to be permanently banned for certain vehicles, whereby the designation of the environmental zones is the responsibility of the federal states and municipalities. I If the fine dust pollution in the zones exceeds the permissible limit values ​​for more than 35 days a year, the cities are obliged to submit so-called air pollution control plans. It shouldn't get that far in Berlin. So the Senate immediately declared the entire region within the extensive S-Bahn ring to be an environmental zone. This means that around every seventh vehicle owner will be affected by a driving ban in the future. In innumerable cases this would result in grotesque, invisible boundaries in the middle of a street. Drivers who drive back to their apartment in Berlin-Mitte from their hometown might have to park their car half an hour in advance on the outskirts of the city center instead of in front of the front door. A special situation arises for the approximately 4,000 to 6,000 owners of Berlin-based n his fight against the preservation of the Tempelhof central airport, the red-red Berlin Senate is increasingly in distress. With their majority, the SPD and PDS / Left Party are doggedly holding on to closing the inner city airfield. But the resistance from business and the population is forming more and more and has cleared the first hurdle on the way to the referendum. After the initiative for the continued operation of the airport (ICAT e.v.) had brought in the signatures for the petition for a referendum at the end of March, its validity has now been confirmed by the regional returning officer Andreas Schmidt von Puskás. At least Berliners should have participated, almost at the end. Now the Berlin Senate is to comment on the application. The statement was not yet available at the time of going to press. After the Senate has spoken, the House of Representatives then has four months to vote on the content of the ICAT's motion. If, according to the current situation, the red-red majority should stick to the closure, the citizens' initiative can initiate the start of the referendum, for which the initiative then has to collect at least Berlin signatures in just four months. P REUSSEN / BERLIN No May Success for Tempelhof Referendum clears first hurdle, but Wowereit Senate wants to remain stubborn After completing this second stage, the House of Representatives would again have to decide on the application to keep flight operations open in Tempelhof. If there was no approval there again, an election day would have to be designated for the act of a referendum. For success, more than 50 percent of the participants would have to vote yes, whereby the sum of these yes votes would have to represent at least 25 percent of all eligible voters, according to the current state of Berlin. The result, however, would again be just an appeal like a motion in the House of Representatives, which Parliament could again reject. The request would be inadmissible if it was directed against a legally binding decision that could no longer be influenced at the political level. In a confidential submission by the Senate Administration, which is available to the Berliner Morgenpost, the referendum is said to have already been declared admissible. In other words: Legally everything is still open about Tempelhof and is ultimately in the hands of Parliament. This contradicts the earlier statements by Senator for Urban Development Ingeborg Junge-Reyer (SPD), who had previously always maintained that the closure notice was a legally binding contract between the Senate and the airport company, which is organized under private law, on which historic cars for formal reasons. Starting next year, they will only be able to move their vehicles within the environmental zone for 700 kilometers throughout the year. A logbook will precisely document the routes. As of January 1, 2010, the limit values ​​will be tightened again and the total distance traveled will be shortened to 500 kilometers per year. However, it is not only unclear how the legislature wants to deal with older vehicles without an odometer, but also what should be done with vehicles from outside owners. Various German cities wanted to introduce environmental zones this year. Because of multiple problems and in the face of violent protests, they also had to postpone the project until the beginning of 2008. In the meantime, the possibility given to cities and municipalities to issue regional exception rules has led to unmanageable chaos. Because of the looming patchwork of rules and regulations, the FDP introduced a motion to the Bundestag at the beginning of March that at least wants to generally exempt oldtimers from driving bans. The CDU / CSU parliamentary group has now also become active. Led by MP Jens Köppen, it has submitted a more detailed application which, in addition to general exceptions for historic cars and petrol vehicles, also provides for a temporary transitional arrangement for residents and affected companies. In order to counter the inner city driving ban for older cars, nationwide more than 7,500 classic car owners took rallies in various major German cities on April 15th. Their goal is to get exemptions from city closings for their cars, which are tax-favored as a cultural asset, and Berlin wants to lock out oldtimers. The whole city center is becoming an "environmental zone": Historic motorcade should bring politicians to their senses. By PETER WESTPHAL By PETER WESTPHAL. At a press conference in the exclusive Meilenwerk, the former central tram depot in Berlin geared towards classic car culture, the Mobiles Kulturgut Berlin e.v. invited to a press conference on May 10th, with a view to the nationwide day of action against driving bans on this Saturday. Then an avalanche of historical sheet metal is supposed to build up in front of the Deutschlandhalle on Messedamm, which is supposed to roll in a parade to Schloßplatz, where the final rally will take place. At the time of going to press, the organizers were expecting up to 1,500 historic bodies. This will hardly affect the air in Berlin: In the past 15 years, particulate matter pollution in Germany has already decreased by 85 percent. However, word of this has not yet got around to Brussels. Can the new air hub replace the central airport? The managing director of the new Berlin-Brandenburg International Airport (BBI) Rainer Schwarz, rail boss Hartmut Mehdorn, Berlin's Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD), Brandenburg's Prime Minister Matthias Platzeck (SPD), Federal Transport Minister Wolfgang Tiefensee (SPD) and BBI managing director Thomas Weyer (from left to right) broke ground for the new major airport in Schönefeld last autumn. Photo: pa no longer to shake is apparently an excuse to avoid the political decision. The pushing forward of a binding contract, which made continued operation impossible, seemed absurd from the start. As Governing Mayor, Klaus Wowereit is also Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Flughafen Berlin-Schönefeld GmbH. So he signed the contract with himself. So it came to what the ICAT says the most strange situation (s) that a single person can decide about the weal and woe of an international airport. The absurd situation is only completed by the fact that the most vehement Tempelhof opponent, Wowereit, himself comes from Tempelhof! Although Wowereit and his red-red Senate are now all alone with their stubborn rejection, they do not allow themselves to be deterred in their blockade policy, which is also incomprehensible in terms of economic policy. While Wowereit wants to close the air traffic in Tempelhof as early as autumn 2008, he is already depriving himself of his argumentative air sovereignty. Because almost 75 percent of all Berliners vote for a continuation of flight operations in Tempelhof (PAZ 14/07), including a majority among the voters of the SPD and Left Party! Against this background, the recent activities of the Senator for Urban Development, Junge-Reyer, appear downright scandalous. The SPD politician has initiated a de-dedication procedure for Tempelhof Airport. In doing so, she wants to circumvent the plebiscite that is on the way through administrative channels, a perfidious attempt. Meanwhile, the ICAT is getting backing from a completely different source. In a press release on May 2nd, the Brandenburg-Berlin Association (BVBB), which was founded against the large Schönefeld airport, decided to withdraw the allegations of Wowereit and Platzeck. The SPD state chiefs of Berlin and Brandenburg had threatened in public that the BBI opponents (read: BVBB) would file a lawsuit against the BBI if Tempelhof would continue to operate. The BVBB, on the other hand, assures that it will take another action against the major project because of the unresolved issue of night flights at the future BBI airport, southeast of Berlin. Your conclusion is short: Anyone who gives up four runways in Tegel and Tempelhof in order to limit flight operations on two runways with billions in costs and taxpayers money has not understood anything about the operation of future-oriented airports. At Berlin's only airport according to the plans of the red-red Senate, the sidewalks would be folded up from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. Police student exonerates suspicion of anti-Semitism D against a class of Berlin police students has been publicly withdrawn. During the Holocaust class with the 83-year-old concentration camp survivor Isaac Behar, the students are said to have shown themselves bored, and one is said to have said that Jews were rich people. As a result, the young police officers came under massive fire across Germany. A commission of experts from the Free University appointed by the Berlin Police President Dieter Glietsch came to the conclusion that there was no evidence of anti-Semitism. Jews were said to have been rich people only as a suspicion of the prejudices that promoted anti-Semitism. Furthermore, the students only wanted to express that they considered it inappropriate to be held responsible for the persecution of the Jews themselves. Behar, however, maintains his allegations. H.H.

4 4 No. May 2007 Contemporary witness Jacques Chirac Born in Paris in 1932 and still in office until next week, the fifth President of the Fifth Republic was able to prevail against Lionel Jospin and Édouard Balladur in 1995 and against Jospin and Jean-Marie Le Pen in 2002. Georges Pompidou The Gaullist politician, born in Montboudif in 1911, was elected as his successor with 58.22 percent of the vote after de Gaulle's resignation in 1969. The high school professor had been de Gaulle's liaison to Paris University during World War II and had served him as head of cabinet after the war in 1958 and as prime minister from 1962 to 1968. The second President of the Fifth Republic died in Paris in 1974 of Waldenström's disease. Charles de Gaulle Born in the north of France in 1890, he became Prime Minister of the Fourth Republic during the Algerian crisis in 1958. Before moving to the presidential chair, he called for a constitutional amendment to strengthen the presidency. The change he called for was approved by referendum. After this change from the Fourth to the Fifth Republic, de Gaulle became its first president in 1959. Following a lost referendum, to which he had previously linked his political fate, he resigned in 1969. He died François Mitterrand of France in 1916 in Jarnac, Département Charente, born first socialist post-war president was able to prevail against incumbent Giscard d Estaing in 1981 and against challenger Chirac in 1988. Shortly after the end of his second term in office, he died in Paris in 1996.Valéry Giscard d Estaing The third President of the Fifth Republic, born in Koblenz in 1926, was Finance Minister during the tenure of his predecessor. With the support of the Gaullist, he won second place in the first round of the 1974 presidential election, behind Mitterrand. In the runoff election he was able to prevail against the socialists with 50.81 percent. His first and only term of office ended. By JEAN-PAUL PICAPER T he leader of the bourgeois party UMP, Nicolas Sarkozy, defeated his socialist opponent Ségolène Royal by more than six percentage points in the final round of the presidential election. He received 53.06 of the vote against 46.94 percent, two million more than Royal. In addition, the winner comes from the otherwise rather unpopular incumbent government, which emphasizes the charismatic character of the freestyle of this short man who is 1.65 meters tall, who did not graduate from a typical French elite academy and, as the son of immigrants, did not acquire French citizenship until he was 14 . The left had been conducting a demonization campaign against Sarkozy for months. He was caricatured as an autocrat, even as a fascist and sometimes as a copy of Hitler. Precisely for this reason, Sarkozy has achieved something that the traditional right was unable to do, namely to collect all rights from the center to the extreme right and to rid the right-wing extremists (internal security, illegal immigration, national identity) from their smell and to standards of the healthy To use common sense without damaging one's own Democratic-Republican reputation. The hyper-rights saw Chirac as a left in disguise. With Sarkozy you have a presentable politician who can make a difference. He doesn't get out of the system like Le Pen or Bayrou. He meets the French wish for a turnaround. He promised a break with the old methods and content. For this, his France's current republic is already the fifth. The dance of republics begins with the revolution of 1789, which ushers in the end of French kingship. Three years after the storming of the Bastille, the country becomes a republic. Napoleon Bonaparte ends the first of the republics with the self-coronation as emperor in the year After he has lost the wars of liberation, the other great powers force him to lay down the imperial crown and restore the kingship of the Bourbons in 1814. The Bourbons are exaggerating the restoration of pre-revolutionary absolutism and B ACKGROUND France is changing. Sarkozy is still divided, but over time he wants to give the country powers to pull the country out of the quagmire and reduce unemployment below five percent as he promised; to provide young people, especially in the underprivileged suburbs, with opportunities for life and advancement; put an end to the riots; Reintroducing eagerness to learn and discipline in schools; Increase purchasing power and growth; to build a Europe that protects its citizens from unfair competition rather than being the Trojan horse of international economic robbers; and feudalism and provoke a new revolution, that of Sie is successful and the Bourbon king Charles X is replaced by the citizen king Louis Philippe from the branch line of the Orléans. If Charles relied on the nobility, Louis Philippe privileged the upper class. But he too exaggerated the clientele policy and was swept away by a revolution 18 years later. The result of this revolution of 48 was the Second Republic. Like the first, this Second Republic was ended by a member of the Bonaparte family who made himself emperor. If it was Napoleon in the First Republic in 1804, it was in the Second in 1852 whose nephew Louis Sarkozy is celebrated: Pathetic declaration of love for his homeland Napoleon. After he became a prisoner of war near Sedan in the Franco-German War of 1870/71, the republic was proclaimed again in Paris. The Third Republic survived the First World War, but not the defeat against the Germans in the Second. After a provisional arrangement, the French state, which tried to reach an understanding with the German Reich, a parliamentary republic was founded in 1946. Like the Weimar Republic of interwar Germany and the First Republic of post-war Italy, this now Fourth Republic is criticized for frequent changes of government as a sign of a lack of stability. Like the first and the second, Turkey will also offer the alternative of a Mediterranean Union so that it just does not become a member of the EU, which he strictly rejects. He also draws a double line, the first under the pseudo-myths of the 1968 generation that still inspire parts of today's youth, the second under the Gaullist foreign policy with its inveterate anti-Americanism and its moral-free realpolitik. He cleverly promised the Americans that he would always stand by them as with friends, but to claim the right to disagree with them, but only to combat the climate catastrophe. From now on he did not speak of France's first task in Iraq. In terms of his working style and orientation, he is close to the German Chancellor. Franco-German cooperation is made easier. He and Ms. Merkel have known each other for a long time and have already coordinated plans. Sarkozy will avoid the dilemma of the European constitutional treaty, which France has rejected by referendum, by drafting three small institutional treaties instead, which the French parliament will approve until the French EU presidency in 2008. Mrs. Royal wanted a new referendum. There should be some debates with Germany if it campaigns for a European economic government that will stop the soaring of the euro against the dollar. He will also defend French interests, but his priority is to strengthen Europe over the rest of the world. Sarkozy's first foreign visit will be in Berlin these days to express the Franco-German friendship. Nobody had attacked the '68 ideology as clearly as he had so accurately. He accused the 68ers of blurring the difference between good and bad. The valid values ​​are now work, authority, morality and personal merit. One will no longer confuse perpetrator and victim; Repeat offenders are severely punished, even if they are not yet of age. The word solidarity is becoming a nonsense. It will be called brotherhood in the future. After 20 years of paralysis, France is changing. Sarkozy has been waiting a long time for this hour Photo: pa. The Fifth Republic The current form of government suits the revolutionary Grande Nation very much. That was only the first victory! hirac has limited the presidential mandate to five years. The parliament in France is also elected for five years. Therefore, for the first time, the parliamentary and presidential elections will coincide. It is hoped that because of the temporal proximity, voters will vote identically on both occasions in order to avoid a grand coalition à la française, known as cohabitation, because states need stable majorities capable of acting. Since 1981 the government has switched between left and right six times. This year's general election on June 10th and 17th will be a test in this regard. Like the President, parliamentarians are elected under a personalized, direct majority vote with two rounds of voting. Nicolas Sarkozy In June, parliamentary elections in France will be involved in the election campaign. He has a good chance of getting the majority he needs. The election researchers predict 35 percent of the vote against 30 percent for the socialists and 15 percent for the Democratic Movement, Bayrou's new centrist party, successor to his UDF. Of the 29 UDF MPs, almost all but four or five have now committed to Sarkozy. They can only be re-elected if candidates from Sarkozy's UMP party withdraw in their favor. Bayrou's voters are also like sandcastles. If a wave comes, the building collapses. Sarkozy lures with opening, he will accept a socialist, probably Claude Allègre as education minister, and two UDF members, probably Jean-Louis Borloo and Gilles de Robien, into his government. Half of the ministers will be women, the most prominent so far being its spokeswoman, Rachida Dati, a judge of Algerian descent who could get the new Ministry of Immigration and National Identity. The spiritus rector of his election campaign, François Fillon, will most likely be appointed prime minister. J.-P. P. fatally for the Fourth Republic that there is a strong Frenchman in its day who is so power-oriented that he is not satisfied with the offices that can be held in it. In the case of the Fourth Republic, however, this strong Frenchman does not come from the Bonaparte family, but from de Gaulle. Charles de Gaule does not found an empire like the two Bonapartes, but the President of the Fifth Republic, created by him in 1958, is a minor emperor, at least in comparison to the President of the Fourth Republic. He appoints the Prime Minister and, on his proposal, the government. He chairs the Council of Ministers. He has the supreme command of the armed forces and in this capacity determines the use of nuclear weapons. He can initiate referendums and dissolve the National Assembly. And in the event of a state emergency, he is entitled to the comprehensive sole decision. Claus von Amsberg once said that in contrast to the Netherlands as a republic with one monarch, France is a monarchy with one president. And even Peter Scholl-Latour can hardly be contradicted when he praises that the Fifth Republic suits the nature of the French. On the one hand, it offers the Grande Nation the glory of a monarchy. On the other hand, it enables her to pursue one of her favorite pastimes, the overthrow of the ruler.

5 A D EUTSCHLAND No May Chancellor without friction by HANS HECKEL Angela Merkel offers her coalition partner hardly any points of attack and benefits from it. Then the heads of the Union and the SPD meet in the coalition committee. Other leading social democrats such as parliamentary group leader Peter Struck, general secretary Hubertus Heil and the hapless party leader Kurt Beck are doing their best to break away from the Union. The reason for the red resentment is the chronically poor poll results of the SPD. What particularly upsets the Social Democrats is the way in which the Chancellor counters her allegations, or more precisely: actually not counters. Angela Merkel lets the nervous Social Democrats run into the void in the same way in which she has worn down her internal party opponents: She simply does not jump on the attacks, seems to ignore them or smoothly evades them. She does not allow for an immediate exchange of blows. The Chancellor appears to the Germans like the dormant pole in a quarreling coalition. Surveys prove the success of their strategy: While the popularity of the black and red government is falling and falling, the head of government enjoys a robust popularity that apparently remains unaffected by the disappointment with the grand coalition. According to a recent survey, only 35 percent of German citizens are satisfied with the coalition, but 56 percent would choose Merkel if the Chancellor was directly elected, so SPD leader Beck only comes to a meager 23 percent. Even half of the Greens voters would have Angela Merkel behind her. East German (14): Lump by WOLF OSCHLIES ur die Lumpe are modest, as Goethe stated in his poem, which is probably the only utterance in which Lump is not immediately portrayed negatively. The rest of the linguistic usage is more rigorous, especially among Germans, who quickly extended the Middle High German word meaning (withered down) to clothing (ragged), people (rags) and deeds (rags). Our neighbors in the east can do the same, especially the Czechs. The Prague daily Lidové noviny (People's Newspaper, most respected newspaper in the republic) has been publishing the cartoon series Dlouh nos (long nose) for years, in which almost every politician was portrayed as a rascal, President Václav Klaus not omitted. In other papers one's own country is sometimes presented as Lumpistan, and putting down political atrocities as lumpárna (rubbish) has been a Bohemian tradition since prehistoric times. Incidentally, also Serbian against lumperajka. It can be done differently, for example with the German lyric poet Gottfried Benn, who introduced a friend as a pump and rascal comrade. That sounds like something straight out of the chancellor's strategy since the beginning of her political career during the 1989 revolution: avoid open confrontation, avoid sharply defined positions. She deviated from it only once and faced the open exchange of blows: At the height of the donation affair surrounding Helmut Kohl, she, the CDU General Secretary at the time, attacked her former patron and sponsor head-on with an article in the Frankfurter Allgemeine. With the success of the public settlement with the former chancellor, Merkel made a breakthrough at the top of the CDU. However, in 2005 it should become clear that Merkel's strategy is not without tactical risks. When the tax expert Paul Kirchhof, whom she herself brought into the campaign team, presented the concept of a radical tax reform and was torn apart by the SPD as if from within its own ranks, Merkel had the renowned specialist in Novi Sad in northern Serbia a beautiful poet, artist, theater and pub town with a song folklore that is legendary throughout Southeast Europe. The latest product is the hit Svice zora / lumpovat se mora: The morning dawns, the lump continues. The verb lumpovat came up about 400 years ago but is still in use, for example on Croatian tourism websites: For what you pay for the flight elsewhere, ovdje mozes tri dana lumpovat (you can rag around here for three days). In addition, lumpen-veteran (Croatian), lumpen-desnica (lumpen rights, Serbian), etc. are all modeled after the German lumpen proletariat that also lives in Eastern Europe: wielu nowych miejsc pracy dla stolecznego lumpenproletaryatu (Polish: many new jobs for the capital city L.), potomci ponovno postali lumpenproleteri (Croatian: the descendants became lumpenproletarians again), cesk? lumpenproletariát and more my bulging collection of documents is not sloppy. Stand in the rain. As usual, she followed her instinct, which ordered her to avoid any violent frontal confrontation. The result was the massive uncertainty of the bourgeois camp and a triumph of the Social Democrats, who were believed to have been defeated. After Schröder's announcement of the new election in early summer 2005, the Union was only able to outstrip the SPD in the elections by a hair's breadth, which is a prerequisite for Merkel's right to the Chancellery. Since then, however, luck has stayed on her side. Merkel's inner-party rivals seem to have simply slackened. Vice Chancellor Franz Müntefering of the SPD has seen this development so far with goodwill. As seen with the health reform, Merkel's way of letting her internal CDU opponents emerge ensured that SPD minister Ulla Schmidt was largely able to push through the social democratic ideas. D From the SPD's point of view, Merkel's behavior in enforcing the anti-discrimination law had a similarly beneficial effect. The sharp criticism of the law from the ranks of the Union petered out because the Chancellor made no move to throw herself into battle and to be the trustee of Lasst sich celebrated: Merkel with BDI President Thumann (right) and EU Commission President Barroso ( l.) to become a concern of the bourgeois camp. The Social Democrats' renewed discomfort with the Chancellor stems from the fact that they are now also using the strategy of letting go against the SPD. The red coalition partner is desperately fighting for its political profile. How is he supposed to sharpen it when Merkel, as the CDU leader, does not offer any friction surfaces? The exaggerated reactions to mere internal Union thought games on inheritance tax are caught up in the chancellor's vague remarks, as was previously the Union's criticism of health reform or the anti-discrimination law. As skilful as the Chancellor's course is from the point of view of maintaining power, the political results could be poor. Economic experts point out that the reform process embarked on under Schröder has not been completed: health, care, labor market, national debt, demographics, hidden by the economic recovery, the country's unresolved structural problems are only temporarily receding into the background. What is missing is a Chancellor who has the necessary willingness to fight to continue to push for long-term solutions. Because what is supposed to last in the long term usually has to be worked out with short-term cuts. But they cause open dispute, which is why Merkel prefers to keep her hands off it. Experts therefore warn that we are enjoying a sham bloom, which will be followed by the worse awakening because of the large amount of homework that is currently lying ahead.The citizens obviously do not take this offense at Merkel, because she has internalized the somewhat cynical basic rule of short-winded media democracy, which is: What is important is not what someone does or fails to do, what is important is what he looks like. That is why the two months of May and June will be Angela Merkel's summer par excellence. Hardly anyone expects any profound progress from the pompous summit of the EU heads of government or that of the G8 countries in Germany. It will be raining empty phrases again, and there will probably also be a dispute with Russia at the G8 meeting. Hostess Merkel will know how to use the glamorous photo opportunities with the greats of the world and her in the middle to do what she can do best: cut a good figure. MELDUNGEN Breather for the welfare state of Cologne The share of social benefits in the gross domestic product, the social benefits quota is now falling, but is still around 30 percent. In 2005, every inhabitant consumed, purely mathematically, social benefits amounting to 8,436 euros. The welfare state has thus recently taken a breather. Because in the previous year, adjusted for price, it was 8571 euros; in 2003, when a peak value was reached, it was as much as 8,751 euros. Nevertheless, the citizens do not fall through the social net even now. If the price increase is factored out, then the social benefits per capita currently still exceed the 1991 level by a good fifth. That year the rate was just under 28 percent. IW strengthening or weakening? Wage increase in the metal and electrical industry is unexpectedly high By ANSGAR LANGE he sip from the bottle was neat. From June 2007 employees in the metal and electrical industry will receive higher wages and salaries. Initially, there should be a surcharge of 4.1 percent; a further 1.7 percent are to follow next year. Since both the top officials of IG Metall and the employers' association Gesamtmetall recommended an agreement to take over in the other negotiating districts, the deal will probably apply to 3.4 million employees. No question about it, the industry is doing very well at the moment. The employers had therefore proposed that a large part of the wage increase be paid as a one-off economic premium. It is an area-wide bill that gives everyone a lump in the future. Since employers have no way of knowing whether things will continue to do so well, they will probably hesitate to hire new employees. The money has to come back somehow. In addition, not all companies are doing optimally. According to Hannes Hesse, General Manager of the Association of German Mechanical and Plant Engineering (VDMA), 30 percent of companies are struggling extremely. Nevertheless, they too have to pay for the colliery. This raises once again the question that has often been asked as to whether a rigid area tariff, which lumps all companies together, is still up-to-date. For almost ten years now, companies from all sectors have been trying to evade the area tariff and its obligations by leaving their associations. The employer-related Institute of the German Economy in Cologne (IW) has calculated that of the approximately 3.4 million employees in the metal and electrical industry, only 58 percent are subject to collective bargaining agreements. But the numbers are deceiving, because the remaining 42 percent do not live on an island of the blessed, at least from the point of view of the tariff opponents. You have to at least orientate yourself on the applicable area tariff, otherwise you will not get any good and suitable employees. So the location is a bit confusing. One can hardly argue for or against the collective agreement in general. Because collective photo: ddp opening clauses that provide more flexibility have long been the order of the day. In his famous agenda speech in March 2003, ex-Chancellor Gerhard Schröder had made a fair bit of rabies and threatened the officials of the trade unions and employers' associations with legislative measures if the collective agreements were not opened to more company regulations. The company panel of the Institute for Employment Research (IAB) provided serious figures for the year for the first time. This year, 52 percent of the collective bargaining companies used the opening clauses to which they were entitled. Opening clauses on working hours are particularly popular. The IW Cologne comes to the conclusion that the complaint about rigid and inflexible collective agreements is no longer justified. In recent years, most of the contracts have been opened for different company agreements on working hours or wages. Every second company made use of this in-house design leeway. One goal should be to stabilize the collective bargaining agreement and to represent the interests of job owners. Save the hubbub Berlin With an international competition, a group of scholars and writers would like to save words that are threatened with extinction. Threatened words are terms that have a valid reason to assume that they won't say anything for future generations, said the initiator of the competition Das Threatened Word, Bodo Mrozek (Berlin). The journalist is the author of the bestselling Lexicon of Endangered Words. An international jury is to decide on the most beautiful threatened word. The main prize will be a unique trophy named Cheese Hedgehog. The competition (runs until May 15. So far, more than 3000 words have been received, said Mrozek. Among them are biblical terms such as tohuwabohu, hoffärtig or rogue This can be achieved by only a smaller part of the distribution scope flowing into permanent wage increases and a larger part into one-off payments depending on the economic situation of the company, according to the IW to give up the wage restraint after the first successes on the labor market and economic growth. But this is exactly what has now happened with the collective bargaining agreement for the metal and electrical industry. The employers now have a failure problem, because the unions only had to say the word strike, and that's it their negotiating partners were afraid, precisely because the order s books are currently full. And who wants to risk jobs through labor disputes? But IG Metall only defended the interests of job owners. After all, which company will be hiring new people in the foreseeable future if it has to pay the highest collective bargaining agreement since 1995?

6 6 No. May 2007 NEWS Poland against freedom of the press Warsaw After Prime Minister Kaczynski had his favorite Ludwig Dorn as the new President of Parliament, his predecessor Marek Jurek had resigned two weeks earlier. He wants to divide Parliament's rapporteurs into three groups. The right-wing conservative politician of the ruling party Law and Justice (PiS) has in mind to equip journalists with various rights based on the model of the social order in ancient Rome. There should be patricians, equites and plebeians, in other words, not every media representative should have access to all politicians. Also, not every journalist would automatically be in the Polish parliament. In view of the fact that the PiS has already excluded media from press conferences that are undesirable and seem too liberal to it, Dorn seems to mean business. Nigeria Remains Divided Abuja Christians in Nigeria are concerned that the persecution will intensify after the presidential election. This is especially true for the Muslim-dominated north of the country. The Muslim governor of the state of Katsina, Umaru Yar Adua, was proclaimed the successor to the incumbent Baptist President Olusegun Obasanjo since 1999. In the elections, which were accompanied by violent clashes with around 200 dead, according to EU observers, not everything was right. As governor, the new president introduced Islamic law, the Sharia, into his state. Of Nigeria's 128.7 million inhabitants, just under 49 percent are Christians, 45 percent Muslim. T he Iraq conference on May 3rd and 4th in the Egyptian resort of Sharm al-Sheikh was the continuation of the security conference held two months ago in Baghdad. In addition to Iraq's neighbors, participants were the G8 countries, the UN, the EU and the Arab League. The meeting was held at the foreign ministerial level, so the most intriguing question was whether Condoleezza Rice would meet her rogue counterparts. It was quickly agreed that a purely military solution to Iraq was hopeless. Insightful circles in the USA and the new Supreme Commander General Petraeus had already made similar statements. Even massive troop reinforcements could not change that, and the security offensive that has been going on for over two months brought no improvements. But the announcement of a timetable for the withdrawal of troops, as demanded by some countries, would rather make the situation worse. For once, we have to agree with the Bush administration. FROM AROUND THE WORLD Gazprom shows a clear line By M. ROSENTHAL-KAPPI The company's push for the European market is unchecked expansion of storage capacities. The group is putting on gas storage. This proposal corresponds to the demands of the EU and then to be expropriated. However, this only applies to Inve-Etzel in Lower Saxony. estitions in relation to end customers. asprom Germania, which ligt; In Heinrichshagen (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), the sub-smaller providers have the access plan, like the one in the east. Behind the intention is also that, says Gornig. Other Invest - German subsidiary of the Russian energy giant take a salt dome - to enable the market. Bissee-Pipeline remained as planned. G Gazprom in Berlin, by means of which its suitability as a gas storage facility was able to survive for a long time. On October 1st the Russian parent company is to be tested; A similar project on the electricity and gas markets in 2010 is planned to keep the first gas trading and investment activities bundled across Europe, a project that has not really got off the ground in Brandenburg, is flowing through the pipeline. announced investments of three billion euros in Central Europe for the next 15 years. In Eisenhüttenstadt (Oder-Spree) in Brandenburg, the energy giant is planning to build a gas and steam power plant for 400 million euros with a capacity of 800 megawatts, which could go into operation as early as 2010 if the company management did not underestimate the German approval process for large companies. Initially, the Eisenhüttenstadt gas-fired power plant will supply electricity to industrial customers. A large Gazprom pipeline crosses near the site. Young people board the Gazprom-Schalke railway in Gelsenkirchen: Gazprom determines where the journey is going. the German border, which will have a positive effect on the later supply of the gas kiln. Since Gazprom is a provider that plans to have its own raw material base at Schwenrich (Ostprignitz-Ruppin). Quite different tones could be heard from Moscow at the end of April. It is because a few large providers dominate the networks. Due to this announcement, the group has, according to Gazprom, The Russians actually have no cause for concern, since the sales quotas in Germany have been able to rise steadily Gazprom decides that those responsible said Gazprom would make big profits because of the political head of Germania Hans-Joachim: The next a reliable energy supply with attractive prices. Gazprom's investments in Germany focus on testing and risk not investing in Germany. What was meant was the demand by Environment Minister Sigmar Gabriel that there should be a separation of energy networks and energy generation in the future, for fear of investing, sales of Gasprom Germania amounted to 395 billion kilowatt hours, sales rose by 87 percent to 6.1 billion euros, to which the high gas price also contributed. Because of the increasing goal: National reconciliation At the Iraq conference, previous mistakes were glossed over by R. G. KERSCHHOFER Shiites now suppress the Sunnis The magic word is not exactly new, therefore, is national reconciliation. What is meant are confidence-building measures, as the Iraqi Prime Minister Al-Maliki had actually promised when he took office a year ago. The aim is to integrate the Sunnis, who had the say in the earlier Ba'ath regime, but have since been subjected to the worst reprisals and acts of revenge, into the now Shiite-dominated state. An almost impossible undertaking, because practically everything has been done wrong since the invasion four years ago: The dissolution of Saddam's army and police created a chaos in which militias of all kinds and common criminals can wreak havoc. The debaathization, the cleansing of all public institutions, led to the collapse of the administration. And the executions of leading politicians of the old regime were cardinal political errors. Today the police and the army are not only poorly trained and motivated, they are also infiltrated by militias. It therefore seems impossible that al-Maliki, as requested by the conference, can dissolve all militias, including the Shiite ones. Even if he wanted to, which most people doubt anyway. According to UNHCR, the UN refugee agency, four million Iraqis are now refugees, half of them in their own country. Syria has taken in 1.2 million Iraqi refugees burden the surrounding area and Jordan still works, but in isolated Syria, the previously free medical and school care could soon lead to conflicts. Europe would do well to intervene in a supportive manner. Because the more difficult the situation becomes, the more refugees will push to Europe. The mass exodus has also had devastating effects in Iraq: The country has lost mainly skilled workers and more than half of the medical staff. A five-year plan for the reconstruction of Iraq was finally agreed. However, one assumes unrealistic growth rates. The partial cancellation of debts that are already badly collected does not cost the creditors anything, but it does not bring the population anything either. And the payment of new support funds is linked to the reconciliation. Saudi Arabia, in particular, is making a name for itself here as the protecting power of the Sunnis, in whose areas there is hardly any oil. It remains to be seen whether the new Iraqi oil law will also inject oil into the Sunnis. The mutual allegations between the US and Iran continued during the conference. The US claims that Iran is not at all interested in stabilizing Iraq. Which sounds logical, because in fact it is unlikely that the US will be able to implement its threats of attack while it is in the self-inflicted Iraq mess. In any case, there was no conversation between the foreign ministers, although the hosts' clumsiness may also have played a role. On the other hand, there was a half-hour conversation between Rice and her Syrian colleague Muállim. Rice issued warnings, but also praised Syria's efforts to prevent terrorists from infiltrating Iraq. A new US tactic seems to be emerging here, namely to drive a wedge between its allies Syria and Iran. A risky game. While the western states are still struggling to increase the share of development aid in the gross domestic product as promised, the recipient countries in Africa, Asia and South America are already looking in a completely different direction, from which the money is freely distributed to them. China and India, but also Venezuela, indulging in oil wealth, have recognized how development aid can be used to retain partners. And without the West noticing that the monopoly of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in terms of lending money to developing countries has been broken, the emerging countries are distributing billions of dollars without any conditions. The Development Assistance Committee of the OECD assumes that five to ten percent of the development aid given worldwide is now being paid by the new donor countries. And while the World Bank Nigeria is providing start-up financing of five million US dollars for its rail network, taking into account demand from China, the price of gas will continue to rise in the future. Europe feels compelled to look for other energy suppliers besides Russia. A promising trading partner is Algeria, which exports 15 percent of its gas production to the EU. Large reserves of gas are still untapped. Although Algeria is not a democratic country, Europe considers it a more reliable trading partner than Russia, whose political unpredictability has been a cause for concern in the past. Gazprom has long been trying to improve the image of its European business partners. Gazprom's perception abroad is highly dependent on Russian politics and the corporation's dependence on the Kremlin. Moscow has often used its natural resources as an instrument of political blackmail. The Kremlin, however, is not putting its hands on its lap: Russia Photo: ddp agreed to a cooperation with Algeria in August 2006 in the area of ​​gas exports in order to secure its leading market position.Moscow's greatest concern is that closer EU cooperation with Algeria could drive Russian gas out of the European market. As already became clear in spring at the meeting of the gas-exporting countries in Doha, Russia is pursuing a clear line of defending its sphere of influence. Rainfall of money World Bank loses monopoly By REBECCA BELLANO China provides development aid without any conditions in the area of ​​human rights, social and ecological standards, China made nine billion US dollars available for the overhaul of the entire railway network. There were no conditions, but the new partnership also means that China makes its knowledge, technology and products available and receives a sales market. Since the new donors as well as the takers have largely had experience with Western colonialism, they rely on a common path of suffering and trust each other more than the West, which after all benefited from the exploitation for centuries. The fact that India and China operate development aid primarily to secure their growing demand for raw materials and that Venezuela pursues political goals does not particularly bother the recipient countries. The main thing is that they get money on favorable terms. The debate about better development models, helping people to help themselves, and spreading human rights and democracy continues in the West, but China, India and Co. are not interested.