The Koran teaches hatred

Sura 60 verse 4Abraham and the jihadists

"You have a beautiful example in Abraham and those who were with him. Back when they said to their people: 'We are innocent of you and of what you worship except God. We don't want to know anything about you. Enmity and Hatred has become evident between us forever as long as you do not believe in God alone. '"

That is the first half of verse 60: 4. It provides a key concept in the ideology of modern jihadists. You even read from it the permission to fight Muslim heads of state. The idea of ​​using this verse for religious political mobilization is quite old.

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What is interpreted as an impossible friendship or open enmity with people of different faiths is actually an episode from the life of the prophet Abraham - or Ibrahim as he is called in Arabic. This episode clearly serves as advice for the first believer to cope with a particular situation.

Orhan Elmaz grew up in Austria and now teaches at the renowned St. Andrews University. (priv.) Abraham is a very prominent prophet who, according to the Koran, built the Kaaba in Mecca. In view of his "complete devotion to God", he is also considered the epitome of strict Islamic monotheism. The many references to the common forefather also bring Islam on a par with Christianity and Judaism.

If you now look at the context of this verse, you can see that Sura 60, which according to tradition was revealed in Medina, is addressed to the first believers who felt affection for some so-called enemies of God - even though they were the Prophet Mohammed and the first expelled believers from Mecca.

What these verses actually refer to can be learned from a hadith, i.e. a tradition of Muhammad, and from the revelation history of this sura 60. It was revealed in response to a companion of the prophet by the name of Hâtib.

After the break of the ceasefire agreement between Ḥudaybiya and the henotheistic Meccans in 628, the Muslims coming from Medina considered conquering Mecca. But Hâtib's family lived in Mecca and did not belong to the ruling tribe of the Quraish. Therefore, shortly before the conquest of Mecca in 630, he tried to betray the prophet's tactics to the Meccans in order to buy the protection and security of his family.

According to tradition, however, the written records were found and brought to the Prophet Mohammed. Mohammed accepted Hâtib's fear for his family in Mecca as a worldly reason for this behavior. He did not call Hâtib an unbeliever because of his betrayal of the Muslims and his devotion to enemies of God. Hâtib, a war veteran from the very beginning, was spared because the cause of this betrayal was not unbelief in his heart.

While jihadists like to refer to people as infidels due to external factors and target them with them, in Muslim tradition the heart is the seat of faith. Its content is - figuratively speaking - not always known to the outside world. That is, as long as a Muslim does not renounce the faith openly, he is considered a believer.

The armed conflicts as a revelation context of sura 60 therefore also limit the scope of this often cited principle of staying away from people of other faiths. Because such a dissociation was only intended as a reaction to suffered injustice, which is explicitly explained in verse 9: "God only forbids you to take as friends those who fought you because of your religion and drove you out of your houses and helped with your expulsion Whoever takes them as a friend belongs to the wicked. "

The audio version is a slightly shortened version of this text for reasons of broadcasting time.