What does dream logic explain

dream

Results of dream research
In the following, results regarding general aspects of the dream, the connection between dream content and physiology and the influence of dreams are presented. Almost all studies refer to REM dreams. Over 90% of dreams are characterized by the fact that the dream ego participates in the event. It is therefore seldom a film that runs in front of the inner eye, but dreams are comparable to the waking life. While a quarter of dreams are very realistic, another quarter is characterized by bizarre things that are impossible in the awake life. Most of them contain realistic images that are connected by unusual links. The Dream feelings are balanced in healthy people if subjective assessments form the basis of the data. All dreams contain visual impressions; auditory perceptions are present in approx. 70% of dreams. Taste, smell and pain sensations are detectable in less than 1% of dreams.
Kinaesthetic sensations such as flying, falling, etc. have not been studied very well. People born blind may dream without visual impressions, but their dreams are definitely comparable to those of the sighted. B. regarding the number of dream people or interactions. Colors also seem to occur in almost all dreams, but they are rarely reported spontaneously if they play a subordinate role in the dream, e.g. B. Color of face, color of clothes. Typical Gender differences in dreams are the frequent occurrence of men, aggression and sexual issues in men's dreams (sexuality), while women's dreams contain more people and emotions overall. This is in line with the results of meta-analyzes on sex differences in the awake life. Also Personality traits are related to the dream content, so creative people dream more bizarre and lively. The findings in this area are, however, very heterogeneous, whereby it must be taken into account that, due to the high variability of the dream content, a larger sample of dreams (about 20 dreams) per person should be analyzed in order to reliably measure trait aspects of the dream experience. The experimental sleep and dream research (since 1953) offers the opportunity to physiological parameters relate REM sleep to dream reports from subsequent awakenings. Findings suggest that the REM period before awakening roughly coincides with the dream length. The “scanning” hypothesis says that the eye movements of the REM sleep are an expression of the eye movements in the dream. Although a weak relationship has been demonstrated, there does not appear to be a one-to-one correspondence. The findings on the relationship between autonomous parameters and dream content (dream feelings) are similar. While nightmares show a clear increase in pulse and respiratory rate, the picture is inconsistent with “normal” dreams. The sexual arousal processes during REM sleep also show a loose connection to the dream content; for example, pronounced fear significantly reduces the erection, while erotic content is beneficial. Interesting recent studies have shown connections between the dream activities of speaking and listening and the EEG activity over the corresponding brain area (Broca and Wernicke centers). By stimulation With different stimulus modalities (light flashes, tones, smells, light electric shocks, pressure stimuli) it could be shown that external stimuli which act on the person during sleep are partly integrated into the dream. The effects are most pronounced for “near” stimuli, i. H. Pressure stimuli and light electric shocks. Glasses with a red filter that were worn by people for 5 days led to “red” dream images. A series of experiments is available on the influence of the previous evening on the dream content. Films, fantasy stories or imagination exercises were used. The findings show quite consistently that direct incorporation of the experimental manipulation rarely takes place, but that the general emotional tone is clearly influenced. Some researchers have moved to investigating “real” stress, such as an upcoming surgery. Here the effects on the dream content are clearer. This is also proven by studies that examined the effects of trauma (sexual abuse, experiences of war, natural disasters) on dreams.
Another field of research is the dream experience of patients with mental disorders. Essentially, there is a continuity of psychopathology with the dream content. The dream experience of depressed patients is predominantly negative and includes topics such as death and rejection. Bizarre content can be found in schizophrenic patients. The preoccupation with the topic of eating or refusal to eat is reflected in the dreams of patients with anorexia or bulimia. To what extent dream interpretation or working with dreams make sense for these groups of people was clearly shown in many case descriptions; but empirical studies, as they are common in psychotherapy research, have only been carried out sporadically. In summary, the previous findings support the so-called Continuity hypothesis of dreaming, d. H. Dreams reflect the waking life. Approaches that consider dreams to be products of chance or see them as compensatory to awake life have so far received little confirmation. The function of dreams can be viewed from three points of view: the function of REM sleep, the function of dreaming as a psychological activity during REM sleep and the function of remembered dreams. Most evident are the findings that REM sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation in both mammals and humans. Recent studies see particularly strong connections for procedural memory. To what extent other stages of sleep also play a role, e.g. B. for declarative memory is still unclear. Whether dreaming also has this function of consolidation is difficult to answer, because on the one hand the consciously rememberable dream represents only a small part of the brain activity during REM sleep (see waking consciousness on total brain activity) and on the other hand, empirical verification is difficult designed because dreams can only be measured if they are remembered. This memory (telling and writing down) itself can trigger further thought processes independent of the nocturnal activity. A common model of thinking in modern dream research is the so-called “mastery” hypothesis, which states that dreaming, comparable to the waking activity of thinking, serves to solve problems.
A wealth of literature describes how remembered dreams provide creative stimuli (art, literature), are helpful in psychotherapy (dream interpretation), etc. However, little research has been done to date on how dreams affect waking life. As a critical mind one could note that reading psychological literature in the morning may produce just such effects that the question of the function of dreaming remains a riddle to be solved.

literature
Domhoff, G. W. (1996). Finding meaning in dreams: a quantitative approach. New York: Plenary.
Schredl, M. (1999). The nocturnal dream world. An introduction to psychological dream research. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.
Strauch, I. & Meier, B. (1992). On the trail of dreams. Results of experimental dream research. Bern: Huber.
Van de Castle, R.L. (1994). Our dreaming mind. New York: Ballentine.
Winget, C. & Kramer, M. (1979). Dimensions of dreams. Gainsville: University Presses of Florida.

Tab. Dream. Dream types.