How is the school in Brazil
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The cultural dependence on Portugal and later on Italian and French models persisted into the 18th century. The cultural solution of Portugal took place around 1830 under the sign of Romanticism. with the poet A. Gonçalves Dias. As a reaction to romantic subjectivism, the socially committed poetry of A. de Castro Alves was created. He wrote realistic novels, among other things. M.A. de Almeida. Around 1870 poetry turned to Parnassianism (O. Bilac) and symbolism (J. da Cruz e Sousa), and prose to realism and naturalism (A. Azevedo).
The poet, novelist and narrator J. M. Machado de Assis, who was involved in both romanticism and realism, was outstanding. Regionalist prose was created by H. Coelho Neto and E. da Cunha. The most important theorists of modernism (originated in São Paulo in 1922 as an avant-garde movement) were the brothers M. and O. de Andrade. Modernist poets included M. Bandeira Filho, J. de Lima, C. Drummond de Andrade, and C. Meireles. J. Cabral de Melo-Neto tried to give modernism a cosmopolitan orientation.
The highlights of the regionalist literature of the 1930s were the novels by J. Lins do Rêgo Cavalcanti, G. Ramos and v. a. J. Guimarães Rosa. After 1945, the representatives of neo-modernism (J. Cabral de Melo-Neto) and H. de Campos, who was influenced by structuralist linguistics, tread new paths in poetry.
In the 1960s, in the field of prose v. a. Clarice Lispector, J. R. Fonseca, A. Dourado, M. Scliar, J. U. Ribeiro, M. Souza and A. Boal in the field of drama. Contemporary Brazilian literature is shaped on the one hand by the international success of the esotericist P. Coelho and on the other hand by the self-deprecating, intermedia writing practice of the younger generation (Patrícia Melo), who grapple with the constant violence in the cities.
The Brazilian school system has long been in the hands of the clergy, especially the Jesuit order. The order maintained two different types of schools, one for the upper class and one for the indigenous population. With the expropriation and expulsion of the Jesuits in 1759, this system collapsed.
Aboriginal schools disappeared while priests took over schools for the upper class. After independence in 1822, the planned establishment of general free primary schools did not materialize. Instead, the focus was on cadre schools.
It was not until the military regime in the 1970s that the idea of giving all social classes access to schools took hold. These efforts were not least driven by the desire to be able to exert a broader influence on upbringing. A two-tier school system with an integrated comprehensive school and grammar schools was created.
In Brazil, school attendance is compulsory for children between the ages of seven and fourteen (which, however, is hardly monitored at all). Since an educational reform in 1971 there has been no differentiation between different school types, but generally an eight-year primary school and a three-year secondary school sector.
This can be completed as a general education (three years) or vocational (three to four years). Since the primary school cannot actually be attended by many poor people, from the age of 14 the primary and from the 21 years the secondary can be made up free of charge as part of adult education.
The situation of the state schools is generally bad. In sparsely populated regions, primary schools are often far apart, secondary schools only exist in the larger cities. The individual schools are mostly poorly equipped and structurally not in good condition. School attendance often fails due to the poverty of many favela and rural residents, which makes buying school uniforms, books and exercise books and the fare unaffordable.
Despite compulsory schooling, 90% of those who work in agriculture attend school for less than four years, and in the favelas of large cities only one in eight children goes to school. Regular teacher strikes in public schools to raise wages (often a few months a year) also make it impossible to go to school. The Brazilian government finances its school system with around 3.4% of its gross domestic product, which, however, only roughly corresponds to that of the Netherlands. Far too little for a 180 million people.
In addition to the public schools, there are numerous private schools, mostly Catholic-sponsored. These schools are mostly of a higher level, but also require a high tuition fee (on average, depending on the region and quality, between 500.00 and 1000.00 R $ per month - 180.00 to 360.00 euros, as of March 2007).
In colonial Brazil there had been few establishments of faculties under the control of the Portuguese University of Coimbra. With the expulsion of the Jesuits, who had also largely supported this institution, these approaches had been put to an end. In the empire after 1822 universities were set up to train doctors, pharmacists, lawyers and engineers. However, these were pure teaching institutes without conducting their own research.
It was not until 1920 that the first Brazilian university was founded with the Universidade do Rio de Janeiro - very late in comparison with the rest of Latin America, where the Spanish had founded universities as early as the mid-16th century. Further universities were created through the merger of previously independent universities. Only at the University of São Paulo, founded in 1934, was a systematic research system institutionalized under European, especially French influence. The USP was initially the only university at which you could do a doctorate on the European model.
Most federal universities were established in the 1930s and 1940s, with a second wave of founding in the 1960s. In the 1970s and 1980s, many new federal and state universities sprang up in the smaller states. Numerous private universities have also been admitted since the 1970s.
Almost 2.8 million students are taught in 150 universities. The University of São Paulo is still in the lead, followed by that of Rio de Janeiro. The federal universities generally enjoy a higher reputation than state universities.
Compared to the universities in the affluent southeast (e.g. Porto Alegre, Florianopolis, Belo Horizonte and Campinas), those in the northern parts of the country clearly fall behind. Despite the high tuition fees, the numerous private universities often do not have a great reputation, as they are mostly focused entirely on teaching, do no research and their professors often have relatively low academic qualifications.
Most Brazilians also try to get to one of the free public universities to save on tuition fees. The number of applicants for the course usually far exceeds the number of available study places. Applicants therefore often use so-called cursinhos to prepare for the entrance examination (vestibular), which are offered by private educational institutions and are therefore subject to a fee.
Because of the great competition for a university place, the entrance tests at the state universities are particularly difficult, so that the private universities have the reputation of accepting less talented but wealthy students. However, the Catholic Pontifícias Universidades Católicas (PUC), which can be found in almost every major city, enjoy a high reputation among private universities.
In 1968, a university framework law abolished the university system based on the European model in favor of the American one. Credits were introduced and professorships in the European sense no longer exist. The study system is divided into three stages: The first stage of the study system is the three-year Graduação, a three-year bachelor's degree program that leads to the academic degree of Bachelor.
In engineering in particular, there are four to six-year so-called licensed programs. A medical degree takes a total of six years. The second level of study, the pos graduação, leads to a postgraduate degree, the Mestrado (Magister), after a further year and a thesis, for which the students usually have up to two years. After successfully completing the second level of study and a further test, you can do your doctorate with the Doutorado.
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